Reconstruction of Early History of Lamcam District from Dutch Colonial Period to Early Ching (Qing) Administration
Page 1-28 [ Full Text / PDF ]
Abstract： The plain area of today’s Taoyuan County, also known as the Lamcam district in early records, stretches from the coastline to the inland mountains. This area has been documented by different ethnic groups since the mid-seventeenth century. However, problems such as discrepancies in spelling and written representation, ambiguity in locations, and missing information after the Dutch retreat made it difficult for historians to reconstruct the early picture of the Lamcam district. This toponymic study examines the place names of the Lamcam district to shed light on how the Dutch and the Chinese perceived and named this area in the mid-seventeenth century. The Dutch used two distinct names, Parricoutsie and Lamcam, to denote this district though the two had different meanings and origins. “Parricoutsie” is an aboriginal word denoting a settlement of indigenous people. “Lamcam”, however, is a two-word name of Southern Min origin signifying a greater area, and it was also employed to denote an entity for lease (pachten). Such distinction was maintained throughout the Dutch colonial era till the Ch’ing (Qing) administration adopted “Lamcam” as the official name of this district after 1683. Furthermore, the phonology, morphology, and written representations of place names in the Lamcam district were also analyzed to locate the aboriginal villages named Parricoutsie, Mattatas, Sinaney, Sousouly, and Terrisan in Dutch documents, and identify their names in Chinese as documented in Ch’ing records. Such cross-referencing of place names would also reveal the activities of the little-known Coullonder tribe in this region in the late seventeenth century. All these would contribute to lay the foundation for further reconstruction of early history of the Lamcam district.
Keywords：Toponymy, Hierarchy of Place Names, Identification of Place Names, Lamcam, Coullonder
Investigation on Migration and Social Culture of Qau-qau Tribe in Qing I-lan
Page 29-85 [ Full Text / PDF ]
Abstract： The Qauqau tribe was a unique ethnic group in Qing I-lan, which was generally regarded as a mystical tribe with its language and culture different from those of the Kavalan or Atayal. They migrated into I-lan plain later than other aborigine groups. Using Qing documents, legends of aborigine groups and accounts of some foreigners visiting the Qauqau tribe of Nan-fang-o during late Qing, this study explored the migration history and social culture of this tribe. It was found that the Qauqau tribe was forced to migrate from Tukidis to Nan-o by the Truku around 1730-1740. Again they were driven out of Nan-o by the Atayal, and finally reached the mouth of Wu-lau-ken River in I-lan around 1797. During 1830-1850, they moved to Nan-fang-o, but were eventually compelled to abandon their home in 1921 due to the construction of the fishing harbor. Even till late Qing, the Qauqau were still head-hunters, buried their dead in caves, and preferred to stay naked during summer, while their other culture phenomena were similar to those of the Kavalan. They used to be seafarers and made their living by both fishing and hunting. In the 1850s and 1860s, the Qauqau language became almost identical to the Kavalan language. The Qauqau even called themselves the Kavalan, and the Kavalan seemed to consider the Qauqau as fellow tribesmen. During the mass northward migration of the aborigine groups in east Taiwan, the Qauqau tribe was the last to move into I-lan. However, their culture was similar to that of the Kavalan tribe, resulting in rapid cultural assimilation of the Qauqau as the Kavalan.
Keywords：Qauqau Tribe, I-lan, Nan-fang-o, Kavalan People, Qing Dynasty, Social Culture
Seizing Opportunities in the Empire: Taiwanese Medical Students in Colonial Korea
Page 87-140 [ Full Text / PDF ]
Abstract： Imperialism loomed over the entire East Asia in the first half of the 20th century, with Japan being the major colonial empire in Asia Pacific. Soaking up all networks of its colonies, Imperial Japan established its predominant status and imposed stringent regulations on interflow among its colonies in the region, with Taiwan and Korea being no exception. In other words, strict colonial rule of the Japanese had severed mutual interaction and free flow of population between Taiwan and Korea. The seemingly active interchange of people within the Japanese empire was mainly “the flow of administrators under colonial bureaucracy”. There was no direct transportation route between Taiwan and Korea. Apart from the few openings for overseas studies or industrial colonization offered by the imperial empire, there was no interflow of people among the colonies. Hence, one could hardly find Taiwanese in Colonial Korea or Koreans in Colonial Taiwan; and this situation persisted till the end of Japanese colonial rule.
Nevertheless, beginning from the 1930s, a small number of Taiwanese were found pursuing medical studies at the Keijo Medical College, Heijo Medical College, Daikyu Medical College and Keijo Imperial University in Colonial Korea. Though these Taiwanese medical students were few, never more than a hundred, they were indeed rare and exceptional cases in the medical education system under the Japanese Colonial Government of Korea. These Taiwanese medical students were also the only group who had first-hand experience of life in Colonial Korea in that era.
This research aims to explore why and how these Taiwanese chose to pursue medical studies in Colonial Korea. Depicting their life and experience in this foreign land also shed light on the encounter of Taiwanese in another East Asian colony dur-ing that time. In addition, by examining how these Taiwanese medical students got involved with Korea in the postwar era, we can catch a glimpse of how imperialism and colonialism penetrated and assumed control over and beyond the colonial era.
Keywords：Provincial Medical Licence, Medical License, Keijo Medical College, Heijo Medical College, Daikyu Medical College, Juken Jumpo, Keijo Imperial Univesity, Taihoku High School
Philip Hsiaopong Liu：
Beyond Agricultural Assistance Little China’s Big African Illusion
Page 141-171 [ Full Text / PDF ]
Abstract： This paper analyzes the relationship between Taiwan and Africa during the 1960s from a racial perspective. The author argues that through a Taiwanese version of “colonial discourse”, Taipei rationalized the political support it received from Africa in the UN. In this framework, Taiwan’s Chinese cultural superiority over “backward” black Africans made it only natural for Africa to recognize Taipei’s leadership status in the international arena. Therefore, while Taipei’s claims to Chinese legitimacy declined, in its relationship with Africa, Taipei could still have the pleasure of seeing itself as a great nation and the legitimate China.
Keywords：Africa, Racism, Black People, Assistance, Vanguard Project, Hsi-kun Yang
The Transmission of Chinese and Dutch News Reports to Japan regarding the Fall of the Zheng Regime in Late Seventeenth Century
Page 173-192 [ Full Text / PDF ]
Abstract： This paper examines how the fall of the Zheng regime was reported to Japan through Tosen fusetsugaki (Chinese News Reports) and Oranda fusetsugaki (Dutch News Reports) from 1683 to 1685. These news reports were compiled in Japanese by the bakufu interpreters according to the interviews with the crews on Chinese junks and Dutch ships.
Chinese junks from various parts of China, and even from Southeast Asia, reported the details of the downfall of the Zheng family. With new information brought in by arriving junks, previous news reports were updated. There were many such examples, reflecting competition among the junks for the favor of the Nagasaki magistrates. The Zheng family had imposed strict control on the outflow of information from their capital; hence, only junks sailing directly from the Zheng capital could report about events there. Chinese News Reports sometimes had their source of information from kaisho or teiho, a kind of official Chinese newspaper.
In contrast, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) vessels were the only Dutch ships allowed to call at Nagasaki. The VOC carefully relayed the same consistent information to the Japanese; hence, the news reports were never amended. This was a Dutch strategy to maintain the trust of the bakufu. Having no base in China, the VOC had little information about events in Taiwan. As a result, the Dutch news reports contained only fragmented information, and even unsubstantiated and incorrect rumors.
Keywords： The Zheng Regime, Ming-Qing transition, Tosen fusetsugaki (Chinese News Reports), Oranda fusetsugaki (Dutch News Reports), Chinese Interpreters, Dutch Interpreters, Nagasaki