This paper reexamines of concept of doka, commonly rendered as "assimilation," by seeking to identify the distinguishing features of Japanese assimilation policy on Taiwan via a comparison with European and American assimilation policies and by reference to modern Japanese history. In order to dissect the principles and structure of doka this article examines its relationship to modern Japanese political thought and ideas of language, in particular the concept of kokutai (polity) and the theory of language promoted by Ueda Mannen.
I argue that although doka policy in colonial Taiwan was centered on the principles of civilization and culture it also had an intensely ideological and instrumental character. Both the instrumental and substantive aspects of doka displayed a marked fluidity throughout time. Many of those who promoted assimilationist Japanese-language education used Ueda Mannen's theories about the Japanese language to create an image of rule expressed by slogans such as "Toward imperial impartiality (isshi dozen)" and "Toward Japaneseness (nihon minzoku)." Their attempts were motivated by the need to mend a perceived rupture in the Japanese polity brought about by the colonization of Taiwan and to maintain equilibrium of the overall imperial system. This was because rule over alien peoples contradicted the fundamental principles of a common ethnic heritage and equality of status among imperial subjects that were the foundation of the Japanese polity.
Doka as extended to Taiwan is thus not completely equivalent to ideas of assimilation as generally understood in western colonial studies. Instead, it must be seen as a strategy of rule that was a product of the need to mimic, modify, and employ on Taiwan the basic principles upon which the Japanese polity was founded.
During the early stages of Japanese colonial rule the Taiwan government-general attempted to encourage the immigration of Japanese fishers and the promotion of government run fisheries in Taiwan without much success. Only in the mid 1920s to late 1930s did the colonial government focus its efforts on Suao, Hualien, and Hsin harbors.
The late development of eastern Taiwan's fishing industry was intimately related to the development of the east coast and the search for an outlet for Japan's surplus fishery population. Following the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese war in 1937, the drive for self-sufficiency allowed for an expansion of the scope of fishery immigration and recruitment. Basic improvements in infrastructure and assistance to immigrant fishers provided by the concerted actions of the government-general and local authorities made the development of the fishery industry a success.
This success demonstrates the colonial government's ability to use Japanese fishermen to transform eastern Taiwan's fishing industry. As a result, the structure of eastern Taiwan's fisheries was transformed from coastal to inshore and finally to pelagic fishing and the three main harbors of eastern Taiwan experienced unprecedented growth.
Two drama movements were important in introducing the techniques and practices of western modern drama to colonial Taiwan. The first was the New Theater Movement, led by Taiwanese intellectuals in the 1920's as a part of the Cultural Enlightenment Movement; the second was the Youth Theater Movement, promoted and sponsored by the Japanese colonial government to reinforce its program of assimilation (kominka) during the Pacific War. This paper discusses the Kosei Theater Society that was established by Taiwanese intellectuals in 1943 with the aim of subverting the official discourse on drama during the Youth Theatre Movement.
The Taiwanese Literature group was composed of educated elites who availed themselves of the government's promotion of the Youth Theater Movement to organize the Kosei Theater Society and put on public performances. Resisting the military propaganda associated with the Youth Theater Movement, the Kosei's leaders emphasized the indigenous and realistic in their performances and aimed to draw a direct connection to the New Theater Movement of the 1920s.
From the perspective of development of modern Taiwanese theater, Kosei reveals that wartime Taiwanese intellectuals were already reflecting on the subjectivity of Taiwanese theater under the assimilation movement. Because the Kosei was able to be formed and put on performances in the midst of the Youth Theater Movement, we can say that the Kosei resisted militaristic aesthetics and, consequently, subverted and expanded the government's intentions behind the Youth Theater Movement.
Keywords：assimilation (kominka), New Theater Movement, Youth Theater Movement
The Concept of Pregnancy, Fetal Sedative, and the Traditional Cosmology: A Perspective from Gender and Culture
In this study, I have attempted to understand the traditional "cosmology of pregnancy" and its ramifications from the perspective of gender and cultural studies. I emphasize as well the culturally constructed nature of the concepts of pregnancy from a cross-cultural point of view. My main point of entry is through fieldwork conducted in Taichung from 1998 to 2000 on the rituals associated with "fetal sedative" (an-t'ai), a complex of practices intended to "calm the fetus" and prevent miscarriage that forms an important part of the traditional culture of pregnancy. I have also used documentary evidence to outline a cosmology of pregnancy and the meanings of gender and culture that such a cosmology might entail.
I found that criteria for defining pregnancy (or conception) are largely cultural determined and the concepts of pregnancy can only be properly understood within the cultural context of local knowledge relating to its cosmology. Upon becoming pregnant, Taiwanese women are according to this traditional cosmology thought to enter a supernatural state occupied by all kinds of deities and spirits, especially the system of evil or dangerous spirits so-called "the primary relevance" such as the liu-chia t'ai-shen, t'u-shen, ji-you, t'ai-sui, and liu-hsia. I argue that such dangerous spirits are essentially sha, which have references to supernatural elements of Taiwan folk religion that do not belong to the realm of gods, ghosts, and ancestors and therefore belong to a fourth category. From this research, it became evident that local perceptions of disorder and pollution are two key notions that need to be explored in future studies.
While outlining a cosmology of pregnancy centered around sha, I also work with the social landscapes model of Chinese religion developed by Arthur Wolf (1974) and other western scholars to re-examine the four categories for classifying the supernatural and their basic nature and significance in Taiwanese folk religion. Finally, I show that through the social construction of this cosmology of pregnancy, other cultural notions of gender were simultaneously created. On the one hand, pregnant women were classified into the same category as that of ghosts. On the other hand, male deities called "the secondary relevance" and the ritual practitioners such as "hong-tou priests" held superior and dominant position over females. It demonstrates the relevance of gender ideology to the construction of the cosmological order.
Keywords：gender and ritual studies, pregnancy, fetal sedative (an-t'ai), cosmology, shen-sha system, traditional Taiwan society