The paper explores the issue of tribal consolidation of Formosan Austronesians under the Dutch East India Company or VOC, with emphasis on the idea behind the consolidation policy, its implementation and its effects. Taking Tavocol and Dovoha as two cases, the paper discusses how the Dutch supervised the post-consolidation tribal power structure and size of settlement in the context of territorial control of the burgeoning colony. Evangelization and secular governance were the two main factors contributing to tribal consolidation in the lowland areas; hence, the Dutch were more concerned about the manageable settlement size and the appointed headmen of consolidated villages. In praxis, the Dutch either followed the inter-village social networks or consulted the opinions of tribal principals on the consolidation project, but its outcomes greatly varied. Moreover, the policy could not be carried out consistently and some tribes even allegedly joined the camp against the VOC towards the end of Dutch colonization.
Keywords：Dutch East India Company or VOC, Tribal Consolidation, Formosan
Oriental Enlightenment: The Problematic Military Experiences and Cultural Claims of Count Maurice Auguste comte de Benyowsky in Formosa during 1771
Maurice Benyowsky’s colourful version of his global adventures during the heady, expansive days of the late-Enlightenment remains still as an historical account, and is perhaps destined for reification at a time of romantic, post-modernist cultural affirmation. Yet this paper argues that within it there lies a virile and possibly dangerous Orientalism, one at least partially based upon a lurid, opportunistic and self-seeking fabrication of his visit to Taiwan (Formosa) in the year 1771. This paper examines the veracity, provenance and historio-graphy of the Benyowsky account of late-eighteenth century Formosa, both as an exercise in one facet of Taiwanese history and as some exploration of the origin and maintenance of European views of the “other” and of the “orient” as they were transforming during the late-Enlightenment period. Furthermore a principal task is to provide an historiographical analysis that illustrates both the initial reasons for the acceptance of Benyowsky’s lurid account as well as the wider contexts of its long life as a seemingly reliable and authentic tale. Questions remain as to the cultural contexts of any general acceptance of otherwise doubtful stories, experiments, claims and “adventures”. Here there is little doubt that the original Memoirs were given greater credence by Benyowsky’s talent in self-fashioning his character and status as those of a reliable gentleman.
This article aims to analyze the decline of “Tai-yun” circulation structure. “Tai-yun” refers to the transport of rice, collected as land tax in Taiwan, to Qing troops and their families stationed in Fukien. By comparing the difference in rice price between Taiwan and Quan-zhou Prefecture, as well as that in various parts of Taiwan, this article examines the role played by rice price in “Tai-yun” and its transformation.
During the 18th century, rice in Taiwan was inexpensive. Merchants from China took advantage of the price difference and engaged in exports of rice from Taiwan. Such trade exchange was allowed by the Qing government because the merchants’ vessels helped undertake the official duty of “Tai-yun”. The circulation structure of “Tai-yun” was dependent on commercial vesselss for rice transport while subjected to restrictions under government policies concerning official ports, navigation routes and vessels allowed.
After the end of Lin Shuangwen Rebellion, the rice price of southern Taiwan rose (1788-1789 A.D.), and exceeded that of Quan-zhou Prefecture, meaning diminished profits for rice exports from southern Taiwan. The relatively lower rice price of northern Taiwan drove merchants to export rice from illegal ports in the central and northern Taiwan. At the same time, to shun their commitment in “Tai-yun”, rice merchants began to transport rice in fishing vessels and small boats, which were not allowed to cross the Taiwan Strait. Such intentional evasion of “Tai-yun” persisted throughout the reign of Emperor Jiaqing (1796-1819 A.D.), during which the price of rice all over Taiwan dropped. Profits from rice trade continued to decline in the mid 1830s when the difference in rice price between Taiwan and Quan-zhou Prefecture further narrowed. Hence, reduction in profits led to fewer merchant vessels visiting official ports for rice trade, thus affecting “Tai-yun” declined by the decrease of commercial fleets. Consequently, the circulation structure of “Taiyun” disintegrated during the first half of the 19th .
In 1923, the Japanese colonial government replaced most civil and commercial laws in Taiwan with those of Imperial Japan, with the exception of legislations related to family and succession affairs, which still followed the norms in the prevailing Taiwanese Kazoku customs. Hence, the modernization or Japanization of laws for Taiwanese family and succession affairs were comparatively less apparent. As a result, controversy arose as to the extent of Japanization concerning Taiwanese Kazoku customs.
This paper re-examines this issue through a critical review of primary data collected from related precedents of both Appellate Court and High Court of Taiwan. Analysis of the data revealed that Taiwanese Kazoku customs were indeed subjected to influence from Japan as well as the West. Starting from the 1910s, the Colonial Court introduced elements of Japanese family and succession laws indirectly through legislations related to household registration or through re-interpreting “old” Taiwanese Kazoku customs. Such tendency became more intense and obvious in the 1930s and had much to do with the actual legal practice in local courts. In addition, the knowledge gained in the legal reform movement of the 1920s as well as the enactment of Taiwan Koseki Law and the Kominka movement in the 1930s all contributed to such tendency. With the defeat of Japan in 1945, the Japanization of Taiwanese Kazoku customs came to an abrupt end as an unrealized dream of inland extension.
Keywords：Taiwan, Taiwan Court, old customs, Taiwanese Kazoku customs, family and succession law
How to Write a History of Public Health under U.S. Aid in Taiwan: A Critical Review
This paper offers an account on how to write a history of public health under U.S. aid in postwar Taiwan. Unlike conventional review articles, this paper first presents its arguments with an overview of related materials and approaches adopted in this interdisciplinary field, then followed by an intensive review of recent literature on the themes of disease control as well as health policy and governance. Taking the history of malaria and its eradication in Taiwan as an example, this paper demonstrates how a policy approach on the international level is apt for the historical investigation of this period.
Keywords：U.S. Aid, Public Health, History of Disease, International Health
Review of The Spanish Experience in Taiwan, 1626-1642: The Baroque Ending of a Renaissance Endeavour by Jose Eugenio Borao