As early as the 1640s, the Dutch colonists constructed a main road from the Zeelandia (Tainan area) down south to the Hengchun peninsula, passing through tribal settlements of Wandan (called the Lower Danshui tribe) and Fangsuo, in order to pacify the eastern parts of tribal groups and searching for gold mines. During the Qing era, Wandan village emerged as the major trading post of rice and sugar, which attracted numerous merchants to set up shops there. At the same time, the government also established civil and military bureaus for collecting land tax and maintaining law and order, paving for the emergence of Wandan Street as the epic center of the Pingtung plains. Through analyzing the land documents of a local landlord family, this article traces the historical development of Wandan village-street, which reveals various patterns of land occupation, including absentee landlords and localized merchants. It also shows the changing fate of different religious organizations, and their functions as the focus of self defense group as against the threat of the nearby Hakka militia. Finally and most importantly, the article analyzes the complex land deals between the native tribal people and the Han Chinese merchant-landlords. It reveals the eventual dispersion of these tribes toward the mountainous areas and hence become marginalized in Han Chinese society.
Keywords：Wandan Street, Pingtung Plains, Li Ruiwen, Lower Danshui Tribe Shangdi Temple, Matsu Worship Hakka Militia Group
Analyzing the Naming System of Kavalan People in Qing Dynasty
During Qing rule, frequent contact and interaction with Han immigrants had caused plains aborigines to be much sinicized, making it hard to trace their traditional culture. However, historical documents contain a lot of traditional names of plains aborigines. Research into these names, and in particular, how the naming system was related to the concepts of marriage and kinship would increase our understanding of their traditional culture. Through analyzing names of the Kavalans, one of the plains aboriginal tribes, recorded in historical documents, this study attempted to reconstruct their long- established naming system, which would shed light on their traditional culture.
Several conclusions can be drawn from the analysis. First, the Kavalan people in Qing Dynasty had names both inherited from ancestors and newly created. Some names were commonly used by different tribal groups, while some were unique to a certain tribe; and new names were constantly created. There was clear gender distinction in names used, with only several that could be used by both sexes. The Kavalan people often named their children after close kin. Second, the Kavalan people adopted ‘the patronymic naming system’. In other words, their names were patronymic with the father’s name added as a suffix. Finally, such practice of the Kavalan people was taken as their tradition, not the result of Han influence.
Despite widely practiced, sex industry in Taiwan and Korea had never been put under governmental control. State-regulated prostitution in Taiwan and Korea began only under Japanese colonial rule. In the early colonial era, the Japanese government simply imposed relevant laws in Japan on these two newly acquired colonies, requiring brothels to be registered and prostitutes to undergo regular checks for several sexually transmitted diseases.
While previous studies on history of colonial Korea have widely agreed that traditional practices of sex industry in Korea had undergone significant changes under the Japanese, how state-regulated prostitution influenced the Taiwanese society has been overlooked by contemporary historians and researchers.
This study focuses primarily on Korean prostitutes working in colonial Taiwan from the 1920s onwards and explores the transformation of traditional sex industry in Taiwan under the colonial rule. Moreover, the cross-cultural gap between native Taiwanese customs and those of the Japanese colonial ruler is also examined.
Keywords：Cho-sen-ru (Korean brothel), State-regulated Prostitution, Sex Industry, Gray Zone
Taking Over and Early Development of Taiwan Machine Manufacturing Corporation (1945-1953)
This paper focused on exploring how Taiwan Machine Manufacturing Corporation (TMMC) took over Taiwan Iron Works of the Japanese colonial era. The technical talents of TMMC came from different sources. Machine designers were mainly local Taiwanese who had served in Taiwan Iron Works. Technical talents in production of railway vehicle were former employees of the Ministry of Railways in Mainland China. As for shipbuilding, Mainland Chinese experts played the supervisory role with actual engineering work handled by technicians trained under the Navy in Magung, Penghu during the Japanese colonial era.
In the early post-war years, the operations taken over by TMMC changed from simple machine maintenance to more complicated machine production and engineering construction. Job orders for TMMC were mainly production and maintenance of machines for public enterprises; hence, it could not specialize in manufacturing of certain commodities, and thus could not achieve economies of scale. Products of TMMC were sold not only in Taiwan but also to Mainland China. Supported by the government policy, TMMC began to concentrate on constructing fishing boats from the 1950s, thus achieving the goal of production specialization.
Keywords：Taiwan Iron Works, Taiwan Machine Manufacturing Corporation, National Government Resource Committee, Take over, Pass on Technology
Review of Frontier of Colony: The Development of Politics and Economies in the Eastern Taiwan by Yu-ju Lin