Scholars often argue that the Hakka identity grew out of the many cross-community organizations that flourished with the social development of Taiwan under Qing rule. While it is widely accepted that such organizations were territorial-based rather than lineage-based, contemporary studies have not probed into the reason why various lineage organizations also thrived in the development of Hakka communities and ultimately became a distinct cultural marker representing Hakka solidarity. To elucidate the correlation between Hakka identity and lineage organizations, this paper traces the social impetus that contributed to the emergence of lineage organizations from a long-term historical perspective within the framework of state-society integration. By exploring the role of lineages in the development of the Liudui region in south Taiwan, which was famous for its once powerful militaristic alliance during early Qing rule, this paper argues that the interpretation of Hakka ethnicity is closely related to the course of lineage formation. The establishment of ancestral sacrificial organizations and lineage corporations laid down the foundation for the formation of ethnic collective memories and the growing identity of the area. Cultural symbols of traditional Han clan development such as ancestral halls and genealogies continued to be the key representations of power and influence in Liudui, even during the colonial period. By 1960, Hakka ethnic memory in Liudui was molded by collective historical interpretations of its past in different eras and under different regimes both by local Hakka residents and the government. The identity of Hakka-speaking groups was further intensified by the continuous Chinese state-building process carried over to Taiwan by the post-war Chinese nationalist regime.
Using related archives in Academia Historica, this article details the process involved in the takeover of judicial establishments, such as Judicial Yuan and Judicial Administrative Bureau, in the early postwar years. The archives examined include the first-hand records of document exchange between Nanking, the then capital of ROC, and Taiwan; in particular, performance-evaluation documents submitted to Nanking by courts and prosecutor offices of Taiwan. This article traces the changes in personnel and handovers of assets in Taiwan to explore the unique features of such takeover. It is expected that the analysis can shed light on the transformation of the Taiwanese judicial system in the aftermath of World War II and contribute to further comparative studies.
Keywords：akeover, Academia Historica, Archives of the Nationalist Government, Judicial Yuan, Ministry of Judicial Administration, court, Judicial personnel, Judge, Prosecutor, Legal profession
Determination to Write History for the Taiwanese: Writing Activities of Ye Jung-chong in his later years
This article describes the life of Ye Jung-chong as an anti-Japanese intellectual in the post-colonial era. Before World War II, Ye Jung-chong was a right-wing intellectual of the anti-Japanese movement. Such had been his image in modern Taiwan. After the war, he published a series of works in the 1960s when Taiwan was still under martial law, thereby passing down his experiences and memories of the anti-Japanese movement in the 1920s to the younger generation. This article attempts to explore the historical background and his life experiences that changed Ye Jung-chong from an anti-Japanese intellectual into a writer of historical experiences. Although not belonging to the postwar generation, Ye Jung-chong attracted much the attention of the postwar generation both domestic and overseas because of his book, History of the Taiwanese National Movement, and because he was part of the “back-to-reality” trend of thought of the 1970s. Although he was invited to write History of the Taiwanese National Movement as a refutation of Yang Chao-chia's memoirs, it did reveal his strong “determination to write history.” In the aftermath of World War II, his role as a “writer” overlapped with his engagement to “write history.” Ye Jung-chong’s zeal to write history stemmed from his demand for equal recognition of the Taiwanese history and culture. His spirit of recording history had set a precedent for the postwar generation, including Kang Ning-hsiang, Huang Huang-hsiung and others. Moreover, every time a predecessor of the anti-Japanese movement died, Ye Jung-chong published essays of commemoration and passed down memories of the forerunners. The ‘tangwai’ magazines inherited his literary style, which was also a part of his legacy prior to the study of Taiwanese history in the later half of the 1980s. Analyzing the writing activities of Ye Jung-chong in his late years can shed light on the post-colonial cultural movement and the process through which historical experiences of Taiwanese under Japanese colonial rule were discoursed, which makes it a part of social memory under the KMT’s dominant, one-party regime in the postwar era.
Keywords：Ye Jung-chong, History of the Taiwanese National Movement, “Determination to Write History for the Taiwanese”, Kang Ning-hsiang
Prevalence of Pneumoconiosis in Taiwan and Mainland China and Its Implications
This paper discusses the prevalence of pneumoconiosis in Taiwan and Mainland China since the mid-twentieth century. Pneumoconiosis was legally recognized as an occupational disease in Mainland China in 1957 and in Taiwan in 1958. During the past sixty years, the incidence of pneumoconiosis always ranked top among various occupational diseases in both Taiwan and Mainland China, constituting a share around 70-80% of all occupational diseases. In 2007, the cumulative cases of pneumoconiosis reached 627,405 in Mainland China, the highest incidence around the world. In Taiwan, survey research on pneumoconiosis began in the early 1950s, with most works being case studies. There has not been any comprehensive survey conducted. Pneumoconiosis is prevalent in various occupations. In Taiwan, except for the few cases of silicosis and asbestosis, the majority of cases were classified as “miner’s pneumoconiosis”. In Mainland China, the first nation-wide epidemiological survey of pneumoconiosis was conducted in 1987-1990, followed by several national statistical reports thereafter. Moreover, in 1987, pneumoconiosis was legally classified into 12 categories and the distribution of these categories varied with both localities and industries. In recent years, new technologies and medicines have been adopted in Mainland China for treating pneumoconiosis. However, as pneumoconiosis is chronic and lasting disease with no cure yet, it is more important to improve the occupational environment and safety measures for preventing and controlling further prevalence of this disease.
Keywords：Pneumoconiosis, Occupational Disease, Job Environment, Occupational Health and Safety for Workers
Book Review: Nancy Bernkopf Tucker, Strait Talk: United States-Taiwan Relations and the Crisis with China