The migration of ethnic groups has been an important topic in history. This paper traces the migration and the expanded living space of ethnic groups in the mountain peripheral areas of Jia Nan Plain during Qing Dynasty. Ancient literature, historical materials of Qing Dynasty, household registry records of the Japanese colonial era, oral histories and other religious data were reviewed. Field work was also carried out to examine in particular the migration of Duo-luo-guo-she to hillside areas in face of competition from both the Hans and other aborigines.
With the influx of Han immigrants, shufan of Da-wu-long-she, Madou she and Xiaorong she not only faced intense competition for survival but also suffered the reduction in living space. As a result, beginning from the 1850s, they moved out from their original settlement in Jia Nan Plain and the hills of Neimen northward to the living territory of Duo-luo-guo-she. This study analyzed the migration of three tribes of shufan to new distant settlements and their interaction with Duo-luo-guo aborigines was also explored in the light of the change in living space.
Before the 1860s, the Qing government began putting T’u-niu boundary epitaphs (tu niu xin jie) all over Taiwan, clearly demarcating territories under Qing rule. The main reason behind the migration of shufan to the hillside near Bai-shui River was competition for survival, rather than driven by state policy or motivated by their desire to preserve their traditional lifestyle. From the mid 18th century when the shufan first migrated and then settled, they had remained the dominant tribes in the hillside areas of Jia Nan Plain. Poor accessibility of the areas and sterile land had contributed to the preservation of their living space. Findings of this study not only shed light on the somber history and social development of shufan communities, but also the interaction between ethnic groups and migration patterns along the mountain peripheral areas.
In the early days of Japanese rule, the colonial government on the one hand used force to suppress the local anti-Japanese militia, while on the other involved Taiwanese gentries in local administration. The education system was reformed and new public schools were established for the children of local gentries with the aim to cultivate ‘bilingual elites’ equipped with modern ideas who could contribute to colonial administration. In the case of Caotun Township, these educated elites well versed in both Chinese and Japanese had played important roles in both the colonial government and the local regional society during the Japanese rule for almost half a century.
This paper studies the anti-colonial movement led by Hung Yuan-huang at Caotun, focusing in particular on influential figures of his clan who sided with Hung and supported his cause. Like Hung Yuan-huan himself, many of his kinsmen in Caotun received both traditional Chinese learning and modern colonial education. After graduating from the Japanese Language School, the highest educational institute of the time, many of them served as teachers at local elementary schools. Tracing the teaching career of three Taiwanese young teachers, Hung Qing-jiang, Hung Shen-keng and Wu Wan-cheng, all from the Hung clan, this paper portrays the different strategies they adopted when caught up in their conflicting roles as agents implementing colonial policies and as local elites promoting social autonomy.
Keywords：Bilingual Elite, Yuan-huang Hung, Qing-jiang Hung, Shen-keng Hung, Wan-cheng Wu, Caotun Township, Japanese Language School
Nativist Literature, History and Ballads: The Establishment of an Interpretive Community for Taiwan Literature under Colonial Rule
Modern readers are not born as they are. Instead, they are nurtured, cultivated and united to form an interpretive community. The emergence of an interpretive community of literature requires not only a shared language but also similar historical experience as its basis.
Having gone through the nativist literature movement and debate of the 1930s, people in Taiwan gradually developed a mutual perspective on literary style, and at the same time, came to realize the importance of a common historical interpretation on the development of literature. Nevertheless, the Japanese colonizers had been swift in getting a head start and getting an upper hand in establishing a collective history. During the Kominka or Japanization Movement, the colonial government attempted to bond Taiwan and Japan into an interpretive community of literature through vigorous creation of historical novels. However, with the defeat of Japan in the Second World War, such plan failed to achieve its original objective. On the other hand, popular ballads in Taiwanese at that time became a branch of Taiwan literature in the form of audio text.
After World War II, the Nationalists took over Taiwan from the Japanese. There were debates on nativist literature in both the 1940s and 1970s. Under the new policies of fostering both nationalism and Mandarin usage, the formation of a new interpretive community from the literary society comprising native Taiwanese and Mainlander readers and authors all from different social circumstances and with different historical experiences and memories was a task both daunting and pressing. Without a solid knowledge base of Taiwan history, the only historical experience and memory shared by the wide spectrum of readers and authors from Taiwan and the Mainland was the oppression and cruelty suffered under Japanese imperialism. Hence, such sentiments serve as the calling and provide the bonding for an interpretive community. Popular Taiwanese ballads of the 1930s, originally deemed vulgar or mediocre and considered as an obstacle to cultural integration in the 1970s, were reincarnated as classics depicting Taiwanese resistance against Japanese invasion. These pop songs of bygone era were transformed into ‘traditional ballads”, emblems of collective historical experience of the multitude.
All previous nativist literature movements and debates embodied both cultural and political meanings of the formation of an interpretive community of Taiwan literature. Such phenomenon also highlights the unique features and characteristics of Taiwan literature developed under colonial rule in the absence of a common historical perspective.
Keywords：Nativist Literature Debate, Interpretive Community of Literature, History, Colonial Rule, Anti-Japanese Nationalism, Taiwanese Ballads
Choshui River is the longest river with the most abundant water resources in Taiwan. In 1709, a large-scale irrigation canal, Pa Pao Chun, was built to provide water for farming in the Changhua plain, thus making this flatland a leading agricultural region in Taiwan. Nevertheless, this canal also resulted in uneven economic growth between the northern and southern banks of Choshui River. Over the years, such imbalanced development, despite often being disregarded, has profound impact on both the environment and society. Although researchers have examined the exploitation of water resources in the light of different disciplines, neither was the interconnection of the issue from different perspectives explored, nor had the dynamic development in the area been examined in longitudinal studies.
From the historical point of view, this research analyzed in depth the irrigation of Choshui River and related issues including fight for water allocation between the North and South as well as between agriculture and industry, rapid depletion of ground water, development of hydroelectricity, construction of weir, and alteration of watercourse. Choshui River, though rich in resources, has difficulty meeting the growing demands from different sectors and the various needs. Worse still, man-made constructions and infrastructure not only failed to alleviate the problem, but further deteriorated the environment.
Looking back at the past 300-year exploitation of Choshui River reveals that pursuit of economic development at the expense of the environment will incur enormous social cost and ecological loss.
Keywords：Choshui River, Alluvial Fan, Pa Pao Chun, Water Allocation Agreement, Water Right, Hydroelectricity, Groundwater, JiJi Weir, JiJi Common Diversion, Yulin Offshore Industrial Park, Guo-Guan Petrochemical Company, No. 6 Naphtha Cracking Industry Site, Water
Discovery and Research Value of “Diary of Fu Xiqi”: Discussion on Issues of Literature and Culture
The discovery and compilation of diaries of figures in modern Taiwan has made profound contribution to the research of Taiwan literature and history. Led by Professor Hsu Xueji and teams, the Institute of Taiwan History had compiled and published two diaries The Diary of Mr. Lin Guanuan by Lin Xiantang and The Diary of the Host of Shui-Zhu Hut by Chang Lijun that the authors were both members of the Li Poet Society. Due to years of study on the Li Poet Society and information in 2006 from the descendants of Fu Xiqi the Chair of Society, the author has accessed the Fu’s diary of 35 volumes. With the support of Fu’s family and under the grant from the National Science Council, the compilation and publication of Fu’s diary is underway.
This paper aims at introducing the discovery and compilation of Fu’s diary. Apart from a brief biography of Fu Xiqi and a comparison with diaries of four other members of the Li Poet Society, the paper concentrates mainly on the discourses of culture and literature. To illuminate the value of Fu Xiqi’s diary, two issues of “Formation of poetic societies” and “Experience of modernity” are put under spotlight. To the analysis on “Formation of Li Poet Society”, the discussion explores (1) the meaning of fund raising for Li Poet Society by purchasing lotteries, (2) the newly uncovered stories of Cai Huiru and Lian Heng, (3) the discovery of “Multiple images” of Li Poet Society, and (4) related information of “Chong-Wen Literary Society” and “Zhong-Jiao Event”. In regard to “Experience of modernity”, the analyses are on (1) body transformation: the complex meaning of plait cutting, (2) organization and operation of the literary media: Taiwan Literary Society and the publication of “Taiwan Literature and Art Series”, and (3) import of offshore knowledge: records of Fu’s book purchase from Japan and China. To the abundance of stories and topics in Fu’s diary, the author expects further research and academic cooperation with scholars.
Keywords：Fu Xiqi, Li Poet Society, Diary Research, Modernity, Traditional Literati
Book Review: Liu Shu-chin, A Thorny Passage: Cultural Resistance and Literary Activities of Colonial Taiwanese Overseas Students in Japan