In the twenty-second year of the Kang-hsi康熙reign (1683), the Ch'ing government took over Taiwan. In the following year, Taiwan Prefecture臺灣府was established to govern Taiwan and Penghu澎湖. Three counties ─ Taiwan, Fengshan鳳山and Chulou諸羅were established under the Taiwan Prefecture. In the first year of the Yung-cheng 雍正reign (1723), owing to the need of national defense and security, the Ch'ing government established another branch office of the Taiwan Prefecture north of the river of Ta-chia-ch'i大甲溪in the county of Chulou, which was so-called Tan-shui T'ing淡水廳. In the fifth year of the Yung-cheng reign, a ting was established in Penghu which was the same level as a county. In the ninth year of the Yung-cheng reign, Tan-shui T'ing was changed to the some level as a county. From this time on until the thirteenth year of the T'ung-chih同治reign, Tan-shui T'ing was not withdrawn, and its position was always the same as that of the county.
In this paper, aside from discussing the establishment of the Tan-shui T'ing, I will analyze first Tan-shui T'ing and its subordinate governmental officials, such as itinerary investigator, the deputy county magistrate and the organization, as well as the duty of the Confucian school system. Secondly, I will probe the spending budget distribution of Danshui Ting and salaries of officials and clerks. Thirdly, I will examine the term of the subprefect of Tan-shui T'ing (tung-chih同知), the manner of his appointment, his lineage background, birthplace and education. We have collected statistical data in the above-mentioned topics in order to provide a more specific impression towards the readers.
There existed two different kinds of merchant groups in the Ch'ing Chu-ch'ien area. The first one was同街鋪戶公記 (common stamp of shops in the same town), which emerged in the village-townships during the late Ch'ing period; for example, Chung-kang中港, Hsiang-shan香山and Chiu-ch'iung-lin九芎林. The other type of merchant group ─ Chiao郊 (merchants' guild) ─ was formed by the merchants who engaged in trade business. The first local merchant group ─ Ch'ien-chiao Chin-Ch'ang-ho塹郊金長和 ─ appeared at Chu-ch'ien city in Mid-Ch'ing period. Then, Ch'uan-hu-t'uan-ti Chin-chi-shun船戶團體金濟順 (group of junk owners) and Nau-chiao腦郊 (guild of camphor merchants) emerged in Kuang-hsu period (1875-1895), and showed the differentiation of the Chu-ch'ien's merchants' guild.
For a long time, Ch'ien-chiao Chin-Ch'ang-ho was the most important merchant group in the Chu-ch'ien area. Some members of merchants' guild in Ch'ien-chiao塹郊 came from Mainland China, but the local merchants still played the most important role in this organization. Merchants' guild in Chu-ch'ien participated in political, economic, religious and social-welfare activities. Since the power of collecting dues by merchants' guild in Chu-ch'ien was took over by the Bureau of Li-kin (釐金局) in late T'ung-chih period, the functions of merchants' guild in Chu-ch'ien changed dramatically. Merchants' guild in Chu-ch'ien paid most of its concern on the guild's work or economic and religious affairs, while the participation of social-welfare and charity business transmitted to the hands of the powerful local merchant-elite.
Keywords：Chu-ch'ien area, merchant group, local merchants, Chin-Ch'ang-ho
The Leadership of the Northern Taiwan Literature: The Literati and Their Literature Activities in the Chu-ch'ien Area During the Ch’ing Period
The Leadership of the Northern Taiwan Literature: The Literati and Their Literature Activities in the Chu-ch'ien Area During the Ch'ing Period
During the Ch'ing period, the Chu-ch'ien area was developed as an important literature place in northern Taiwan and had been even honoured with the title of"The Leadership of The Northern Taiwan Literature" for a long time. However, until lately, owing to a lack of related study on this subject, its inside story is still quite vague. Therefore, by exploring the corresponding records of local monographs, prose and poetry, this paper tries to investigate the literature groups at that time and seek out the facts of their literature activities. It attempts to deeply unveil the visage of the literature development in the Chu-ch'ien area during the Ch'ing period.
This research, in addition to describing and capturing the major life instances of the literary intelligentsia in the Chu-ch'ien area, also analyzes their organizations and social backgrounds. It can be largely observed that most of the local literature authors gained their merit and fame by passing the civil service exams; most of them were the local South Fukienese living in the Chu-ch'ien town, while few were Cantonese; over half of them were merchant descendants bearing strong family colors; literature writers were mostly male and seldom female. In addition, there were some literary intellectuals immigrating and residing in Taiwan, who are involved in a sort of literature skill rivalry, and thus made the literature fashion in the Chu-ch'ien area more colorful and beautiful.
Among the local and the immigrated literary intelligentsia, there existed complicated interpersonal friendship networks, including the various relations of family, marriage, tutor-student, mating friends, commerce, officer-nobleman, and so on. This engendered the rise of the group-activity trend for the literary intelligentsia, aside from their individual artistic creations. They gathered and set up poetry group organizations, and reached an activity climax especially in the literature festivals surrounding the "Pei-Kuo Yuan" (北郭園) and the "Ch'ien Yuan" (潛園) poetry clubs. This trend particularly contributed to the splendor of the Chu-ch'ien literature. This article portrays the above literary intelligentsia and their literature activities, thus showing and demonstrating the splendid literature scenes in the Chu-ch'ien area, which led the northern Taiwan literature during the Ch'ing period.
Keywords：Taiwan literature, Ch'ing Period, Local literature, Chu-ch'ien, Literati, Literature Activities
Disease, Marginal Indigenous Society and Civilized Body: A Case Study of I-lan Taiyal in 1895-1945
This paper analyzes the relationship between infectious disease and the change of the Taiyal tribal society under Japanese Rule. The focus of the analysis is on the change of and the interaction between the Taiyal's living environment, their traditional culture, and the pattern of the diseases. The paper notes that the Taiyal was the chief target of colonial government's policy of controlling the aborigines and that the Taiyal society changed markedly during the colonial period. The study focuses on the influence of the infectious diseases as one of the major factors that caused the change of the tribal society.
The paper concludes that the Taiyal had adjusted themselves to Taiwan's particular natural environment by establishing specific cultural mechanism. Both the tradition of head-hunting and the practice of dispersing themselves in mountain area had the function of preventing diseases. This Taiyal cultural tradition was also defined "barbarian" customs. The colonial government forced the Taiyal to move away from the mountain area and to practice rice-farming in order to exploiting natural resources of this area. As a result of this aborigine-controlling policy, the Taiyal was more vulnerable to infections, such as epidemic and endemic malaria in civilized area. The spread of the new diseases damaged Taiyal's health and the tribal society was increasingly dependent upon the modern medical system. Disease thus played an important role in the change of the Taiyal tribal society.