As an archipelago of islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait with significant military importance, Penghu has developed its unique foodway under the conditions of seriously limited natural resources and large migrating population. This article examines the factors shaping daily meals of Penghu and the transformation of Penghu catering business in history, exploring how different political regimes and policies influenced the catering business of Penghu. By analyzing the case of Penghu, this paper further highlights the research scheme of “Island Foodways,” aiming to provide an innovative and comparative perspective to scrutinize the foodways of small islands.
Penghu had long been an important military base since the 13th century, but its poor soil, windy climate, and a shortage of rain led to frequent famine in history. During the Japanese colonial period, Penghu was taken as a Japanese naval base. Japanese restaurants and other dining establishments emerged to meet the needs of Japanese officers and navy, along with other military-related businesses. With the end of the WWII, military forces migrating from Mainland China became the chief customers of dining business, reshaping the food scene of Penghu. Until the 1970s, when tourism developed with important transportation constructions and advanced fishery industry, seafood restaurants substituted other dining choices, marking the growing importance of the new “moving population”: tourists. This article suggests that environment, military needs, and moving population are significant factors influencing the “island foodways” of Penghu, which merit further comparative research in the future.
Keywords：Penghu, Island Foodway, Post-war Transformation, Migration, Military Needs
Transformation of Taiwanese Cuisine and Cross-border Exchange of East Asian Food Culture in Japanese Colonial Taiwan
Through analyzing the contents and characteristics of representative menus and cookbooks of Taiwanese cuisine published between 1900 and 1937, this article aims to explore the transformation of Taiwanese cuisine in the early 20th century, examine the cross-border exchange of food culture among East Asian countries, and explain its impact on the foodscape of Taiwan.
The analysis showed that under the influence of popular ‘Chinese cuisines’ prevalent in East Asian cosmopolitan cities such as Shanghai and Tokyo in the early 20th century, the flavor and cooking techniques of ‘Taiwanese cuisine’ had gradually digressed from its origin: Fujian cuisine. Cross-border exchange and communication of food culture among East Asian countries had emerged in the late 19th century as the result of war, colonization, trade, travel, and the growth of middle class. Though under the colonial rule of Japan, the owners of restaurants in Taiwan actively introduced authentic cuisines of China to Taiwan to satisfy the new taste of local Taiwanese as well as Japanese officers, tourists and residents in Taiwan. Consequently, the foodscape of Taiwan was not only shaped by the Japanese as the colonizer, but also influenced by the food culture circulating in other East Asian countries. Of note is that the cuisines and food culture of other East Asian countries were not merely transplanted into Taiwan. Instead, these Chinese cuisines were adapted and adjusted to meet the local taste. Interestingly, many of these ‘adapted Chinese cuisines’ were nowadays viewed as ‘traditional Taiwanese cuisine’. Examining menus written by restaurant owners and cookbooks revealed how the new discourses of Taiwanese cuisine were formed, and how some Chinese cuisines were embedded into the foodscape of Taiwan and became representative ‘Taiwanese cuisine.’
Keywords：Menus, Cookbooks, Foodscape, East Asian Food Culture, Cross-border, Taiwanese Cuisine
From “Shame of Taiwan” to “Fastest-developing Industry”: Rethinking Industrialization of Forestry in Colonial Taiwan
During Japanese colonial rule, seventy percent of Taiwan’s land was officially categorized as “rinya”, literally meaning “forest and uncultivated land.” Hence, forestry would undoubtedly have played an important role in Taiwan’s industrialization. However, until the late 1930s, the performance of forestry in colonial Taiwan had been so unimpressive that scholars in colonial forestry called it the “shame of Taiwan.” The rise of forestry occurred in the 1940s when the Japanese empire began its mobilization for military invasions; and forestry thus transformed into the “fastest-developing industry” in colonial Taiwan.
This essay aims at answering how this remarkable transition could be made possible. The reason why colonial foresters deemed Taiwan’s forestry the “shame of Taiwan” had everything to do with the failures or the “backfiring” of an array of seemingly rational and efficient policies implemented or imposed on Taiwan’s broadleaf forests. As a result, from 1925 onward, colonial foresters endeavored to introduce the so-called “scientific forestry” from Germany to manage and conserve Taiwan’s broadleaf forests through a project called shinrin keikaku jigyō. Nevertheless, the project was almost another failure owing to their underestimating the fluctuations of international market of timber. The favorable turn came when Japan mobilized for war, resulting in rising demand of broadleaf timber to meet military needs. In 1941, the Nanpō Corporation was established, comprising forestry entrepreneurs from both Japan and Taiwan, with the aim of finding a balance between military-oriented industrialization and conservation of Taiwan’s broadleaf forests. Despite privileges offered by the colonial government, Nanpō suffered great initial losses when implementing national policies on vertical integration of forestry resources. By 1943, Nanpō switched to emphasize horizontal integration, relying on cooperation among local networks of timber production in Taiwan through distributing privileges it received from the colonial government among its stockholders. Discussion in this essay opens two black boxes tagged with “science” and “colonialism” respectively; untangling the network that involved colonial governance, modern science, industrialization, and environmental changes, thus contributing to our knowledge of Taiwan’s environmental history during Japanese colonial rule.
Keywords：Scientific Forestry, Colonialism, Capitalism, Industrialization, Environmental History
Transformation between Military Need and Civilian Demand: Establishment of Ammonium Sulfate Factory in Pre- and Post-war Taiwan
Through examining the establishment of the Taiwan Chisoo Corporation in the
pre-war era under Japanese rule and the Kaohsiung Ammonium Sulfate Corporation in
post-war Taiwan, this article shows how the government could promote smooth production
of military or civilian goods through the control of economic policies during wartime and
under resource shortage.
Ammonia as a raw material for the manufacture of ammonium sulfate can be
converted into nitric acid required for making gunpowder. Pre- and post-war history in
Taiwan evidenced its use and the switch of production equipment to meet civilian demand
and military need. In Japanese colonial Taiwan, mobilization for war converted an
ammonium sulfate factory, originally planned in 1942, into a military facility for production
of gunpowder to meet wartime need. In the aftermath of WWII, the facility continued to
produce gunpowder but for mining and not military purpose. In 1948, a preliminary plan
had been drawn up for the establishment of an ammonium sulfate factory in Taiwan, but it
remained on paper only. With the retreat of the Nationalist Government to Taiwan in
1949, the military equipment brought along was channeled to produce ammonium sulfate
fertilizer for promoting food production to satisfy civilian demand; and the Kaohsiung
Ammonium Sulfate Corporation was established by the Taiwan Provincial Government.
The two ammonium sulfate factories mentioned above were set up against different
backgrounds with diverse market considerations. The pre-war Taiwan Chisoo Corporation
was for wartime mobilization and served the Japanese military and industrialization
needs. In contrast, the post-war Kaohsiung Ammonium Sulfate Corporation was mainly
for enhancing domestic food supply in a time of cross-strait tension. While both factories were established under resource shortage in the pre-war colonial era and post-war economic development period, their establishment would only be regarded as a special
phenomenon during wartime or regime transition, rather than a typical economic