With references to historical materials in Manchu and Chinese languages, this
article analyzes how the espionage network established by the Zheng family operated
during the Ming-Qing transition, and explores how the Qing Empire used intelligence
from this network to acquire knowledge of islands on the southeastern coast and Taiwan
before their conquest in 1683.
This article argues that the Zheng espionage network conducted secret spying
missions in China proper collecting detailed intelligence, which was in turned obtained by
the Qing Empire, also through espionage, for learning about Taiwan and the neighboring
islands prior to conquering them. The Taiwan Lue Tu (the brief map of Taiwan), archived
at the National Palace Museum, was drafted under this background. This sketch map not
only served military purposes but also constituted the basic understanding of the Qing
Empire on Taiwan. The cartography of Taiwan included the Chinese version made by the
Zheng commanders and the Manchu version constructed by the Qing court. Manchu
descriptions on the map reveal that the Qing court perceived itself as a universal empire.
By understanding how the Zheng espionage network operated and how the Qing Empire
exploited its intelligence, this article examines how the Qing court transformed Taiwan
into an imperial borderland within the context of imperial history.
Through tracing the journalist career of Ng Ong-seng and his participation in and
observation for the operations and developments of The Taiwan Minpao, this articles
explores the meaning of such a press that was born out of anti-colonial movements. The
Taiwan Minpao had three characteristics: anti-colonial consciousness, modern press and
colonial nature. Mechanisms behind the production and dissemination of reporting texts
in The Taiwan Minpao are also discussed.
Anti-colonial consciousness contained in The Taiwan Minpao had aligned the rise
and fall in business of the publishing house with ups and downs of anti-colonial
movements. Nevertheless, major setbacks of such movements sometimes became the
turning points for survival of this colonial press. For example, the split of the Taiwanese
Cultural Association and the forced disbandment of the Taiwanese People’s Party
accidentally contributed to the permission from the Taiwan Governor-General Office for
The Taiwan Minpao to move back to Taiwan and to issue daily newspaper. With the
accumulation of experiences and personal networks in the movements, The Taiwan
Minpao need not compromise with the Governor-General Office and managed to issue
daily newspaper with pure Taiwanese capital.
As a modern press, The Taiwan Minpao institutionalized the publishing model as
an organization to support the “timeliness” of regular publications. Ng Ong-seng had
good network relationship through his education, rich experience in article writing and
journal editing as well as high linguistic competence in colonial Hanwen, making him an
attraction and asset. Division of work and adjustment in organization of the publishing
house brought promotion opportunities and also increased responsibilities for Ng.
Colonial nature of The Taiwan Minpao would imply deficiency in journalistic professionalism and interference in news reporting and censorship from the colonial
regime. Therefore, Ng could only rely on his own explorations and experiences to establish
multiple sources for reporting materials. Following the restrictions on interviewing and
reporting imposed by the Governor-General Office in the aftermath of the Hsinchu
Commotion Incident, Ng attempted to report on the process and trial of the incident from
various sources, bringing into full play the “contemporary nature” that closely linked The
Taiwan Minpao with colonial Taiwan.
Keywords：Ng Ong-seng, The Taiwan Minpao, Colonial Modern Press, Anti-colonial Consciousness, Report Materials, Hsinchu Commotion Incident
Little attention has been paid to the Taiwanese in Hankou during the period when
Taiwan was under Japanese rule. Without knowing their experience, it would be difficult
to have the full picture of overseas Taiwanese living in China at that time. However,
conducting research on this topic encounters the following problems. Firstly, most
Taiwanese who were in Hankou before and especially during World War II preferred to
keep silent on their lives and activities in those days. Secondly, materials of appeals or
sentences for traitor/ war criminal cases are hard to obtain.
This study has access to considerable primary source materials, such as lists of
passports issued by the Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan, which shed light on
Taiwanese traveling to Hankou before 1937. For the postwar period, historical materials
available include name lists composed by the Hankou Police Department and the Hankou
Taiwanese Association; the Wuhan Daily (newspaper) with a Taiwanese chief editor after
the city fell into Japanese hands; trial records kept by the Second Historical Archives of
China (Nanjing) and the National Archives Administration, National Development Council
(Taiwan); as well as interview records of Chuang Szu-chuan and Ko Tai-shan, two crucial
persons then in Hankou. In addition to compiling a list of Taiwanese in Hankou and
exploring as thoroughly as possible their activities there, this paper focuses on their postwar
predicaments, such as trials of traitors/ war criminals, as well as how they overcame
difficulties and returned safely to Taiwan.
A careful scrutiny of the above sources revealed no more than 400 Taiwanese in prewar
Hankou, including 145 soldiers recruited by the Japanese to Hankou. Most of those
who went there after 1938 were either merchants, or working for the city government or
Japanese companies. There were also a few physicians working for the Tung-jen
Association (同仁會). After World War II, the Taiwanese there organized the Hankou
Taiwanese Association. With the help from all possible sources, most of these Taiwanese were able to return home safely. However, some who worked for the Wang Ching-wei regime were arrested and tried as traitors/ war criminals. They were either found guilty and
served prison terms, or cleared of all charges.
Keywords：Hankou, Chuang Szu-chuan, Ko Tai-shan, Trials of Traitors / War Criminals, List of Passports Issued by the Office of the Governor-General of Taiwan
Ying-che Huang, Wen-chung Chang：
Recent Developments of Taiwan Studies in Japan (2012-2017)
Shigaku zasshi (“Historical Journal of Japan”), first published in 1889, is the most
time-honored and prestigious academic journal on historical science. Its annual May issue,
devoted to review articles summing up recent developments in the academic field of history
within Japan, is of particular interest and a must-read to researchers of Japan history.
Studies of Taiwan history has been made a sub-branch since the May issue of 2003 (Issue
112, no. 5).
Literature reviews of Japan-based Taiwan studies have been available in both
countries. The Japan Association of Taiwan Studies put emphasis on significant academic
publications within each decade, while other organizations such as Institute of Taiwan
History, Academia Sinica held symposiums with retrospect and prospect regrading certain
years or specific topics in order to portray the academic activities in Japan in a more
detailed manner. In view of the frequent exchanges between Taiwanese and Japanese
researchers and a shared focus on the subjectivity of Taiwan and the continuity of history,
this study aims to add to the cumulative efforts to demonstrate the involvements and trends
in the Japanese academic circles of recent years.
This study takes the year 2012, the 40th anniversary of Japan severing diplomatic
ties with the Republic of China, as the starting point, and combs through the Japanese
publications regarding “Taiwan study” up to 2017, as well as feedback from the Japanese
academic circles, based on monographs, proceedings, and papers included in the
“Retrospect and Prospect” section in Shigaku zasshi.
Keywords：Shigaku Zasshi (Historical Journal of Japan), Subjectivity of Taiwan, Continuity of History, Cultural Diversity, Transitional Justice, Taiwanese Aborigine