This paper explores the unfolding of modern knowledge of race and racial classification in Taiwan. Ever since natural history became a discipline of study in the early modern era, race has emerged as a global concept of universal human classification. The scientific study of diverse human societies as a discipline began with natural history and evolved into branches of human science, namely ethnology and anthropology. The knowledge construction of human diversity had also changed its focus from identifying distinctive racial characteristics and cataloging human taxonomic units to analyzing the social functioning of human groupings. Although participants in knowledge construction of race carried with them various purposes, such as evangelization, commercial or political interests, they all re/present the societies under study using race, or other concepts of human unit derived from it. At the turn of the 20th century, the diverse local human societies of Taiwan were classified and categorized within the global knowledge framework of race by naturalists, missionaries, and anthropologists. The scientific claim of race knowledge in Taiwan made by missionary-naturalist George MacKay and anthropologist Ino Kanori had excluded other representation of local knowledge. Despite of the emergence of other concepts of social classification in modern knowledge construction of human society, race still remains nominally a social unit for identification and distinction.
Keywords：Natural history, Anthropology, George Leslie MacKay, Tashiro Yasusada, Ino Kanori, Mori Ushinosuke, Race, Social Classification, Knowledge Construction, Global Concep
On-the-island and Outside-the-island Competition Performance of Tennis and Baseball of Taiwan during Japanese Colonial Period
“Competition” is one of the basic principles of sports. In Taiwan, modern sports have been systematically practiced since Japanese colonial period. After the development of decades, how is the sports level of Taiwan under Japanese rule? Sports of Taiwan are not simply the physical competitions; sometimes, they implied the significance out of playground. What is the special meaning of Taiwanese athletes’ participation in competitions on and outside the island? In order to answer the questions above, we must observe the performance and real situations in the competitions. According to the survey on sports organizations in Taiwan conducted by the Society of Taiwan Physical Education in 1933, tennis and baseball were the most popular sports during the Japanese colonial period. The number of organizations and players of these two sports were the majority in Taiwan, and they were popular with newspapers and media. The competitions were held regularly on the island and representatives were selected and sent to Japan for the imperial games. They were the most representative sports during Japanese colomial period. Thus, this study aims to explores the technical levels of tennis and baseball, including the performance in competitions on and outside the island, results of competitions with foreign teams, and the meaning of holding and participating in these games. This paper first briefly introduces the development of baseball and tennis, and discusses tennis competition between Taiwanese and Japanese on the island, as well as baseball games with Japan, the Manchuria and Korea. In addition, it examines the performances of different players in Taiwan, including the Hans and Japanese migrants and the aborigines, in sports games held both local and abroad.
Keywords：apanese Occupation, sports in Taiwan, on-island and outside-island competition, tennis, baseball
Modernization, Equalization and Differentiation: Education and Employment of Students in Technical Schools of Taipei（1923-1945）
This paper examines the education and employment of students in technical schools of Taipei under the integrated education policy introduced by the Japanese colonial government since the 1920s. With the aims to extend the inland of Japan and to assimilate the colonial subjects, the integrated education policy was implemented in educational institutions from middle schools and above. In the literature, there has been much discussion on how Taiwanese were deprived of the opportunity to enter Taiwanese schools under the integrated education system. However, the changes experienced by educational institutions of different nature also varied. Prior to the integrated education system, Taiwanese students could still enjoy equal competition with their Japanese counterparts. Their rate of admission to domestic technical schools approximated that to similar educational institutions in Japan; implying a reasonable selection process for school entrance. Nevertheless, under the differentiated education system, Taiwanese faced unequal competition with the Japanese, and the admission rate of Taiwanese students to technical schools dropped substantially. On the other hand, under the equalized education system, Taiwanese graduates from technical schools could enjoy equal footing and fair competition with the Japanese. They also exhibited their ambitions in pursuit of equal treatment and professional development. During the Second World War, restrictions were imposed on both public and private institutions for employing graduates of technical schools and measures of apprentice mobilization were enforced, thus affecting the natural trend of practice and employment for technical school gradates. As a result of wartime mobilization, most students and graduates of technical schools became the journeymen and technical staff in military supply factories.
From the perspective of USaid medicine in Taiwan after the Second World War and using the archives of Lo Sheng Leprosarium, this article on medical history of Taiwan explored the policy changes for control of Hansen’s disease and the reasons behind such changes. The study aimed to make up for the gaps in the history of that era and examined the human rights issues involved in the policy changes. It should be pointed out that the post-war policy changes for Hansen’s disease control were neither a natural development nor a logical transformation.
During the colonial era, the Japanese had adopted a policy of forced segregation for people suffering from Hansen’s disease. Such policy was still implemented during the transfer of sovereignty and persisted till the mid 1950s. Thereafter, both the introduction of health programs under USaid medicine and the involvement of international church organizations led to policy changes. Treatment of Hansen’s disease patients in the early 1960s evidenced the rise of USaid medicine in Taiwan in terms of training of medical professionals, advances in medical technology, as well as establishment of the out-patient system. On the other hand, the Taiwan Leprosy Relief Association set up by international church organizations put into practice their vocation of "medical missionary" by providing outpatient treatment in line with USaid health programs. The research also highlighted the harm done to the inpatients of Lo Sheng Leprosarium in the “medical experiment” when USaid medicine terminated. The relationship between power and medical knowledge under US-aid medicine not only subjected the Hansen’s disease sufferers to such health risks and left an infamous patients’ rights record in the post-war history of Taiwan
Keywords：Post-WWII Taiwan, USaid medicine, Hansen’s Disease Control Policy, Patients’ Rights, Taiwan Leprosy Relief Association (TLRA)
This review essay aims to provide an analytic outline of contemporary Taiwanese historiography. The major arguments can be summarized in two parts: I first trace the multiple origins of Taiwan historical study by pointing out the complex interplay of four major research traditions since late nineteenth century, namely Japanese colonial studies, Chinese local history, Western area studies and Taiwanese oppositional discourse. The article then outlines the major achievements of Taiwan-centered historiography since the 1980s in source collection, research topics, institution building and internationalization and further comment on new trends towards cross-disciplinary research, diversification of historical discourse and intensification of identity politics in the 1990s. The conclusion reflects on the challenges and prospects of Taiwan historical study in the new global age.
Keywords：Contemporary Taiwanese Historiography, Japanese Colonial Studies, Chinese Local History, Western Area Studies, Taiwan Opposition Movement
Review of Hung Li-wan's Social Network and Collective Consciousness of Aborigines: Historical Changes of Plains Aborigines in Central Taiwam (1977-1900)