By utilizing historical data, land contracts, travelogues, and expedition records, this study examines the factors that affected the migration of the Ta-wu-lung plain tribes, as well as the contacts, the interactions and the bonding of relationship between the migrants and the natives in the Nan-tzu and Lao-nung valleys from the mid-Eighteenth Century to the end of the Nineteenth Century. Under the levy system of “fu fan tsu(撫番租),” all indigenous tribes were designated the six Nei-yung she(內優六社)whereas the migrant newcomers who moved to their home turf were called the Four-she fan(四番社). Besides being a levy nomemclature, fu fan tsu also functioned as a marriage medium as well as a mechanism for social intercourse.
While focusing on the content of fu fan tsu, this paper describes the intra-tribal network of the migrants and the indigenous people. It also examines how the Ch’ing government changed its levy policy and abolished the levies. Since the policy was the lynchpin to maintain a stable interaction between the natives and the migrants, the Four-she fan were content to continue to make the fu fan tsu payment until the early Japanese rule.
This new perspective is aimed to challenge the prevailing conception that fu fan tsu was synonymous as Fan ta tsu (番大租), because the former denoted something much broader than the latter, which referred essentially to land rental relationship between the migrants and the natives. When facing competition from either the Han people or other aborigines, the Ta-wu-lung plain tribes timely took initiatives to expand their living space. And while settling in the new environments, they kept in touch with their kin folks back home and maintained their ancestral customs which they brought with them. Thus, by reviewing the nature of fu fan tsu, this paper hopes to shed new light on the development of relationship between the Four-she fan and the six Nei-yung she and the factors that affected their interactions.
Keywords：Four-she fan(四社番), six Nei-yung she(內優六社), fu fan tsu (撫番租), Fan ta tsu(番大租)
A Study of the Engokanke Land Ownership of Cheng-tang Lin in Wufeng during the Japanese Colonial Period
Based on official documents of the Taiwan Government-general and private bookkeeping data of Cheng-tang Lin─one of the largest landlords during Japanese colonial period in Taiwan─this paper studies the composition of Cheng-tang Lin's land holdings. Initial research has found: 1), Lin's land holdings should include the 224.4245 jia (甲) shown on the copy of land ledger published by the government after the survey during the period of 1896-1903, plus the 68.4327 jia (甲) of the engokanke (connection ground), which was released by the government in the mid-1920s; 2), based upon the land cultivation expenditures that Cheng-tang Lin submitted to the Taiwan Government-general, the rate of the return from such investment appeared to be seriously underestimated; and 3), the degree of flexibility with which the Taiwan Government-general executed its release policy regarding the connection ground clearly depended upon: 1), whether or not Lin was making continued progress in land cultivation; 2), the time required to develop and cultivate raw lands; and 3), the price of released lands.
Keywords：:Engokanke (connection), Land Composition,
Japanese and Cherry Blossomo in Colonial Taiwan: Discovery and Transplanting of "Inland Scenery" and Transformation of Discourses about Cherry Blossoms
This paper attempts to trace the interaction between the Japanese colonizers and their colonized space with a focus on Taipei, the most densely populated area occupied by the Japanese. As a case study, the paper investigates the changing practices, concepts, and meanings of cherry-tree planting on Mount Grass (Yang Ming Mountain) in suburban Taipei. Drawing upon old newspapers, magazines, tour guides and reports, the paper also describes the changing contexts of, and the dynamics between, urban and suburban life.
The historical process of discovering, planting and transplanting cherry trees reveals that in the early stage of the colonial period, the Japanese viewed cherry blossoms as the symbols of their "motherland" and "home country." The government's early initiative of transplanting mainland cherry trees to Taiwan was also triggered by the idea of protecting some aspects of Japanese "inland (naichi) scenery" which they had found in Taiwanese "overseas territory (gaichi)." However, in the process of planting and transplanting, different symbols and meanings had become associated with cherry blossoms, i.e. Japanese tried to rationalize the unique image of "the country of the cherry blossom," to project and even transplant mainland landscapes onto Taiwan, and to ultimately transform Taiwan into an extension of Japan Proper（naichiencho）. By the 1920s, however, discourses emerged with a new idea of using cherry tree transplantation to encourage Japanese permanent settlement in Taiwan and to prevent the "Taiwanization (wanka)" of Japanese children on the island. Thus, the policy of planting cherry trees also responded to the challenge of several obstacles that the Japanese encountered in their overseas colonies. Nevertheless, the idea of using transplanted cherry trees to assimilate the Taiwanese and to enhance "nationalistic sentiments" did not become popular until the late 1930s.
The above-mentioned phenomena illustrate that landscape design not only involves power manipulation, but also reveals Japanese immigrants' nostalgia and a sense of crisis. As the Japanese anxiety intensified, they realized that living in an "overseas territory" did not necessarily mean securing permanent advantages for them. The interactions between people and space, between city and suburbia, and between colonial politics and mundane daily living reveal a much more complicated dynamic than simply a power paradigm between "the rulers and the ruled."
Keywords：Japanese in Colonial Taiwan, cherry blossoms, scenery, landscape, Taipei, space, urban Life
Taking Over and Managing Taiwan's Shipping Corporation during the Early Post War Period (1945-1950)
This research focuses on the recuperation of Taiwan Dockyard Company during its permutations from a wartime Japanese managed industry to becoming Taiwan Machinery and Shipbuilding Company, and subsequently the Taiwan Shipbuilding Corporation during the early post war period. We look at technological aspects, examine personnel by separating Taiwanese employees from their Chinese counterparts, as well as analyzing their education levels in job categories of management and technology. At the same time we also discuss the capital formation, fund appropriations and corporate management of Taiwan Shipbuilding Corporation during the early post war period.
Keywords：Taiwan Shipbuilding Corporation, The Resource Committee of National Government, Technology, Inflation