The essay reconsiders and verifies the etymology of the word "khan-chhiu (牽手)", literally "hand in hand", an idiom often mentioned in Taiwan history. The origin of the term "khan-chhiu" is not from the language of the Taiwan indigenous people, but possibly a new word created by the overseas Changchou (漳州) and Choanchou (泉州) people in the historical and cultural process of their encountering with other nations during the early modern period. While in all probability, the etymology of "khan-chhiu" is Chang-Choan language, we should not exclude other possibilities, such as the Spanish word casar or casarse. But then, why did the Taiwanese believe the word "khan-chhiu" was originated from Taiwan's indigenous people? It was mainly due to the writing and presentation of Taiwan by scholars and officials in the Ch'ing dynasty. They were inclined to see Taiwan as a "double savage land"; however, this understanding of "otherness" had been accepted by the Taiwanese themselves as their world view. Therefore, the etymological study of Taiwanese historical idioms should not just pay attention to the Austronesian languages or Dutch. On the contrary, we should trace back to a historical stage on which the Changchou and Choanchou peoples, encountering and mingling with the Japanese and the Europeans. The essay further presents a research concept called "the cultural field of the Holo people." Such a broad Holo language, including Changchou, Choanchou and Chaochou (潮州), can be viewed as a historical cultural field for studying the scope of early modern Taiwan history.
Keywords：khan-chhiu, etymology, Chang-choan Language, Cultural field, Holo People
Prince Flag and Rattan Cane: Colonial Rule and Indigenous Appropriation
The paper discusses how the Dutch utilized the prince flags and the rattan canes for their pre-modern colonial rule when the Dutch East India Company governed Taiwan, as well as how the indigenous peoples appropriated the flags and the canes for their own political purposes. The flags and the canes were the items that the Dutch bestowed to the indigenous peoples when the latter submitted themselves to the company. The paper describes the origins of the flags and the canes respectively in the context of Dutch colonial rule in Taiwan, and then portrays their designs for usage and the meanings behind. At last it discusses how the indigenous peoples appropriated the aforementioned two objects.
Keywords：Dutch East India Company or VOC, Colonial Rule, prinsvlag, rotting
Varieties of Tribal Rents in Late Imperial Taiwan: A Study of Propriety Rights of the Anli Tribe and Xingang Tribe, 1740-1870
The essay intends to clarify the nature of tribal rights in late imperial Taiwan. From the case study of two different tribes, the Anli tribe and Xingang tribe, it shows that the tribal landlords would manage their rental rights based on the productivity of various fields. The past scholarship tends to view the tribal rents in a rather simple term. On the one hand, the orthodoxy would group the tribal rents into the category of big-rents rights whereby the tribal landlords received a small portion of rice grains from the Han Chinese tenants. On the other, the revisionist intends to show the tribal rents belonged to the category of small-rent rights. This paper will point out that both views of tribal rents are wrong in two aspects. First, they fail to examine correctly the contents of land contracts. Secondly, they tend to view the tribal rents in a static form, rather than analyzing the dynamic rental behavior of the rights holders. The paper analyzes the varieties of rental pattern in two different tribes. It shows that the rich tribal landlords, the Pans, by controlling the rights of productive paddy fields, would invest in two types of rental rights. They collected the tribal big-rent while they leased the uncultivated grasslands to the tenants. Meanwhile, they received the tribal small-rent from the cultivators through the investment of subsoil rights. To the Xingang tribal lords who resided in poor mountainous areas, however, they mainly collected the tribal big-rent.
In the late Nineteenth Century, Taiwan Governor Liu Mingchuan performed many reforms to improve Taiwan's defense capability and modern infrastructure. One of them was to abolish all guard posts and to use the rents that were originally collected for supporting guard posts as funds for pacifying mountain aborigines. However, due to the historical complexity of the guard-post system, its abolition created a ripple effect on state tax, frontier defense policy, and the interests of big land owners in the frontier.
To help understand the relationship between the society and the state during the late Ch'ing period, this paper investigates the four stages of the guard-post abolition: 1) original guard-post registry, 2) rent collection by guard posts, 3) abolishing the guard posts, and 4) land taxation originally under guard-post jurisdiction.
The paper finds that persistent resistance by the frontiersmen stemmed from crude local governance rather than from the policy itself, evidencing the incapability of the local government to perform the task. Even though the information transmission at all administrative levels was fluent in the 1880s, local governments failed to carry out the policy efficiently. County governments had yet undertaken corresponding administrative and fiscal reforms as did the provincial government. In the final analysis, county governments relied heavily upon local strongmen and gentry as agents to accomplish the mission. As a consequence, local governmental jurisdiction was substantially weakened while the power of the gentry grew stronger and stronger until they dominated the local society.
Keywords：Liu Mingchuan, guard post, land survey, kaishan fufan (opening up the mountains and pacifying the aborigines), fiscal reform
Vision and Frustration of Post WWII Taiwanese Intellectuals: The Case of the Yan-Ping College
When Second World War ended in 1945, the Taiwanese elites in Japan were exultant. They wanted to return as soon as possible and organized the Reborn Taiwan Reconstruction Research Association (RTRRA) so as to make contributions to their homeland. After their return, they established the Yan-Ping College which received enormous welcome from Taiwanese society. However, within less than half a year, the school was ordered to close. During the White Terror of the 1950s, the RTRRA was also forced to dissolve.
By documenting the fate of the above-mentioned groups, the article strives to explore the expectations and disappointments of the Taiwanese intellectuals in the early postwar era. While the education focus of Chen Yi's government was "Chineseness," the Yan-Ping College, which was administered by Japanese-educated intellectuals and attended by Taiwanese students, was suspected for teaching regionalism and separatism. The authority sent secret agents to monitor the school, and, after the 2.28 Uprising, found an excuse to shut it down. The Chinese government did not trust Taiwanese intellectuals, would not allow them to meddle in higher education, nor to let the natives design their own curricula. This was the real reason why the Yan-pin College was closed.
In order to forestall the threat of Communism, the Kuomintang government used terrorist means to suppress the Taiwanese society in the 1950s. Even though it was more or less a defunct organization, the RTRRA was requested to dissolve. As so many other Taiwanese intellectuals who were victimized during the White Terror, the instructors and students of Yan-Ping College also suffered deeply in the 1950s. Wanton arrests and murders created a dreadful pall falling all over the island, as the KMT regime decimated a generation of talented and better-educated Taiwanese. But the horror had also alienated the populace for the years to come.
Keywords：the Reborn Taiwan Reconstruction Research Association (RTRRA), the Yan-Ping College, the 228 Uprising, the White Terror.