This article aims at illuminating the historical process of how the Hakka became “Righteous people” in alliance with the Qing ruler in Taiwan, in the light of the nature of Qing state as a foreign regime and interactive relationship between the Hakka group and bureaucratic staffs.
As a foreign ruling regime the Qing state was not able to obtain a strong national commitment of the ruled Han people, and thus make the bureaucratic staffs constituted by the Han people played a key role in ruling Taiwan. The military forces used by the Qing dynasty in suppressing rebellions in Taiwan, no matter the Han righteous people or the aboriginal righteous people (Yifan義番), are made of Taiwan’s local inhabitants. In the beginning, the sources of “righteous people” were not confined to the Hakka, but included peoples of Zhang(漳) Quan (泉) groups. However, “righteous people” became a specific label of the Hakka group later; this development had much to do with the ethnic characteristics of the Hakka as a group of being good at fighting and agriculture. The gap between the Qing state and Taiwan society made the orientation and interest of Han bureaucratic staffs become determinant factors in the development of the society. The Han bureaucratic staffs chose the Hakkas as alliances because of their capacity in military campaigns and economic need of developing inner mountain area.
The discussions in this article are divided in to two periods following the main axis of the interest alliance between the Han bureaucratic staffs and the Hakka group. The first is a passive declaring period, lasting from Kangxi(康熙) to mid Qianlong(乾隆) reign. For this part, the discussion is focused on analyzing the official farm (Guanzhuang 官莊) as private estates of the Han bureaucratic staffs from its setting up to abolition. These estates relied on the farming laborers supplied by the Hakka group. The second is an active declaring perod, lasting from the late Qianlong period to the ceding of Taiwan in 1895. The analyses focus on the process of how the Han bureaucratic staffs utilized the Hakka group as labor force to develop inner mountain area and utilized their capacity to run new enterprises for increasing tax revenue.
Keywords：Righteous People, Lan Dingyuan, the Family of Lins in in Wufeng, the Hakka
The Plains Aborigines Policy of Taiwan Soutokufu during Early Japanese Rule: A Case Study of Kavalan on Gilan Plains
During early Japanese rule, shu-fan were considered culturally affiliated with Han Chinese by Taiwan Soutokufu (Government-Gerneral of Taiwan). Shu-fan, who took residence in the general administration region, were beyond doubt imperial subjects, but their non-Han identity subjected them to the jurisdiction of aboriginal affairs. This paper discusses how Taiwan Soutokufu adopted both local administration policy and aboriginal jurisdiction to deal with the ethnicity of Kavalan Shu-fan on Gilan plains from 1895 to 1930. In addition, examining the establishment and transformation of Gokyouhei would shed light on how Taiwan Soutokufu manipulated the relations among ethnic groups in Taiwan to maintain its governing power.
With Taiwan Soutokufu turning its attention to sheng-han, the prior emphasis on shu-fan policy during early Japanese rule gradually vanished. Nevertheless, the census statistics of the Japanese government revealed that the population at that time was composed of the Japanese government revealed that the population at that time was composed of three main groups, namely, Han Chinese, shu-fan and sheng-fan. This situation had remained unchanged for more than 10 years. The dichotomy between fan and Han persisted, separating the non-Han from Han Chinese in Taiwan, with shu-fan wavering between sheng-fan and Han Chinese. The ongoing manipulation of the state on ethnic distinction caused shu-fan to differentiate themselves from sheng-fan due to their physical resemblance to Han Chinese. However, such similarity did not lead to assimilation, and shu-fan remained non-Han in the eyes of Han Chinese.
Keywords：Tiawan Soutokufu, Han Chinese, shu-fan, sheng-fan, ethnic distinction
The Role of Political-merchant in the Development of East Taiwan during Japanese colonization: The Case of Katakinsaburou
This paper examines the essence of Japanese colonization in the light of the complicated relationship between the political and business sectors and discusses the impact of the exploration schemes initiated by Katagumi on the development of east Taiwan.
Analyses of historical materials led to conclusions as follow. First, in terms of administration characteristics, Kagagumi showed obvious features of a political merchant. Second, the development of east Taiwan from the late 19th century depended heavily on factors such as capital, immigration policy, social order and transportation. It was the lack of support from these factors that the exploration schemes of Katagumi failed. Nevertheless, Katagumi had laid the ground for further development which was finally realized by subsequent immigration of officials and the irrigation projects they implemented. During Japanese colonization, people from Katagumi were main social leaders of east Taiwan’s society. The contribution of Katakinsaburou to the development of east Taiwan had also won himself merit and recognition. Third, the Government-General of Taiwan favored the Japanese more than the natives. This has affected the livelihood of the Han and their development in the east. In other words, the close relationship between the political elite and the merchants resulted in favoritism towards the Japanese and restricted the possibility for native Taiwanese to develop the east under Japanese rule.
Keywords：political-merchant, Okuragumi, Katagumi, Katakinsaburou, Ekidensya, east Taiwan
Traditional Dwelling of Alisan Tsou and its Changes under Japanese Rule
This paper attempts to study the traditional dwelling of the Alisan Tsou in terms of its spatial layout, structure, functions, and cultural meanings; and traces its changes under Japanese rule. Ethnography were examined and field interviews with elders were conducted. The investigation revealed that the traditional Alisan Tsou dwelling, which can accommodate a sub-clan, has an oval floor plan with the sun’s trajectory from sunrise to sunset as its axis. Its sky-like thatched roof and the ritual of in-house burial reflect the Tsou’s cosmological concepts of day versus night and life versus death. Daily living and taboos of the Alisan Tsou are organized around the principles of female/male, agricultural deity/hunting god, and granary/structure for animal skeleton. In fact, the structural layout of traditional Tsou dwelling reflects a metaphor of the human body. Along with Japanese rule came the introduction of modern concepts of personal health and hygiene, industrial innovations, new materials and technology as well as aesthetic perspectives for architecture. All these had impact on the Tsou traditional way of life which was gradually taken over by modern lifestyle. The self-contained traditional dwelling withered to become a structure of the past and what remained was the transformed and much reduced “emo-no-peisia”, serving as a prevailing symbol of the cultural complex.
Keywords：The Tsou, House, Transformation, Dwelling, Mount Ali
The Realization of Liberal and Democratic Constitutional Order in Taiwan: A Coincidence in History
The development of Constitutionalism in the modern West is rooted in its historical social culture. For the first time, people of Taiwan were faced with the legal norms of western constitutionalism when the Qing Dynasty of China ceded the island to Japan in the late 19th century. Adhered to the traditional values of East Asia and colonialism, the Japanese rulers merely paid lip service to the establishment of a liberal and democratic government. However, intellectuals of the local Taiwanese population had begun their struggle fro liberal and democratic constitutional order.
Japanese occupation ended in 1945 when the Republic of China resumed sovereignty over Taiwan. Nevertheless, the ruling class and constitutional laws bore great resemblance to those under Japanese rule. At the end of 1949, a government state emerged in Taiwan composed of political elite from Mainland China. Despite the implementation of constitutionalism, martial law was imposed. During the early rule under the Kuomintang(KMT), most government posts were taken up by Mainland Chinese. They supported the authoritarian rule under General Chiang Kai Shek and his successors and harbored the hope of recovering China from the communists. On the other hand, native Taiwanese of different ethnic origins and the aborigines were excluded from the central government and suffered political disadvantage, making it hard for them to exercise their constitutional rights.
The 1960s saw an increasing number of liberal scholars who advocated for modern constitutionalism. The opposition party composed mainly of native Taiwanese was able to spread ideas of constitutional order in the election campaign of legislators in the 1970s. With access to administration resources and aided by local factions, the KMT could always win the majority of votes and hence accepted the proposal that all members of the Legislative Yuan should be elected. With the lifting of the martial law in the 1990s, the Mainland Chinese could no longer monopolize political power but had to compete with native Taiwanese in elections. The political balance shifted in favor of native Taiwanese who gained greater influence in the government through popular elections. At the same time, the Grand Justices began playing the role as supporters of human rights. Following their defeat in the presidential election of 2000, the KMT finally became the opposition party and saw constitutionalism as a ploy against the new government.
The realization of liberal and democratic constitutional order in Taiwan can be seen as a coincidence in history. To enable constitutionalism to take root in Taiwan require deeper reflections and further efforts. In view of the multi-ethnic society and the ambiguous national identity, the Constitution of Taiwan should allow different voices to be heard while fostering greater recognition of the constitutional order and Taiwan as a nation-state.
Keywords：constitutionalism, democracy, aborigines, Meiji Constitution, Government-General of Taiwan, national identity, minority rule, the Constitution of the Republic of China, ethnic groups, fundamental rights, the Grand Justices, election