The main aim of this article is to trace up the historical transforming processes from Japanese-ruled period to postwar period of Taipei in terms of Parson’s AGIL theory. In paralleling with the four concepts of AGIL theory, the article analyze how the characters of Taipei transformed between different periods in terms of four aspects, that is production relationship, political, economical and societal cultural dimensions.
The results of research find that what make city characters of Taipei change is the functional needs of adaptation, achievement of goals, social integration and maintenance of cultural model of individuals’ action according to production relationship of different areas, special accessibility, location of city resources and dominance of city subculture in urban daily lives. Therefore, through the choice pattern of individual actions, the characters of Taipei in two periods basically reflects the common characters of social action.
Study of Planning of Japanese Immigrant Village and Farmstead During Colonized Period in Hua Lian
After investigating Japanese and Taiwanese residential district on the immigrant village, which located in Hua Lian and was planned by the Government-General of Taiwan directly during colonized period, we understand that the segregate policy on physical environment planning has been taken before World War in Taiwan. Although like this segregate policy was not found on the west Taiwan until nowadays.
While the Government-General of Taiwan carrying forward that immigrant village plan, the techniques and theories of western physical environment planning was used, this meaning that the villages were planned by grid pattern. Besides, they were afraid of the threat of aborigines’ attack. For defense reason, the settlers were planted in some certain concentrated tribes, and these tribes were surrounded by outside agricultural land, which was divided by bigger grid pattern.
And the farmhouses in the immigrant villages were designed as the smallest prototype of Japanese farm building’s plan. Inside the farmhouses, these farmhouse owned large percentage “mud floor” than townhouse owned. Owning large percentage “mud floor” of inside space of farm building was a special characteristic to Japanese farmhouse.
Hui-yu Caroline Ts’ai：
Township Administration in Wartime Taiwan Under Japanese Rule(1920-1945) : The Terms in Question
This paper examines the organization and operation of the township administration in Taiwan between 1920 and 1945. The township administration in Taiwan under Japanese rule was based on two systems: One was the hoko system of the police administration, while the other was the township government of the administrative system. The research findings here basically extend my earlier study of the hoko system.
As a research topic, “township administration in colonial Taiwan” is a pioneer study. This paper is the first part of my ongoing research project into “township administration”. The research on the local administrative system of the period of Japanese rule is the basis for understanding the history of Japanese rule in Taiwan, and the township administration is one such crucial cutting point.
This paper focuses on the terms in question in the local administration of colonial Taiwan, while examining the operation and evolution of the township administration. It attempts to explain the duties, limitations on power, and the taxation system of township governments, as well as the relation between township governments (gasisho), township associations (gaisho kumiai), and public associations (kokyo kumiai). Finally, this paper seeks to explore the hature of the township administration by looking into its ”devolved duties” (inin jummu) and related terms.
The Fetal Sedative and the Perception of 'tai shen' in the Traditional Taiwan
Using literature such as folk songs, local monographs, native texts, mystic charm, research records, and fieldwork data, this essay tries to explore the customs of the fetal sedative and perception of ‘tai shen’(胎神) in traditional Taiwan society. There are two topics in brief. One is the hope of increasing an knowledge of cultural discourses on pregnancy & delivery of women, and to comprehend their unique experiences of life and religious world under the overall beliefs of ‘tai shen’. The second is to grasp the basic concepts and attributions of ‘tai shen’ from the cultural complex on fetal sedatives and its associations, in order to understand the discourses on ‘shen sha system’ (神煞體系) in the folk religion of Taiwan.
I suggest firstly that the cultural complex on fetal sedatives including customs, taboos, and rituals, not only presumed a kind of ‘disorders’, but also a kind of ‘sure bin’(崇病)(i.e. disorders possessed or caused by demon) during women’s gestation that should be understood within the context of cultural practices in regards to the gynecology of Middle China. Secondly, in traditional Taiwan, the perception of ‘tai shen’ had multiple meanings obviously; it was the spirit of the fetus, the essence of making his life, and was also a kind of supernatural that existed externally, then entailed and ambivalent dynamic relationship between mother-to –be and fetus. Finally, from a native’s point of view, I argue that the perception of ‘tai shen’ was ‘tai shen’ (胎煞) referring essentially to the reign of ‘sha’ consciousness in folk religion, and its inflictive dimension of the dynamic relationship had been emphasized.
Theoretically speaking, these issues mentioned above involve two realms of discourses. One is the realm of Gender & Ritual Studies’, and the other is ‘Religion Studies’. Most importantly, theory-constructions based on basic well-known research, including the theory of Gender derived from women’s experiences of pregnancy & delivery , and ‘the concept of the person’ invoked by the perception of ‘ tai shen’, will become central to future research.
Encounter, Suspicion and Submission the experience of the siraya with the Dutch from 1623 to 1636