Tomio Matsuoka (1870-1956) was a prominent entrepreneur in central Taiwan under Japanese colonial rule, actively exerting influences in both business and political circles. His first business initiatives in Taiwan focused mainly on establishing the sugar industry and cultivating sugarcane seedlings. In the early 1910s, he started devoting more attention to Japanese investments in Southeast Asia, and pioneered business ventures in the Philippines. Combing through archives of government and private institutions in Japan and Taiwan, official investigative reports as well as personal documents and letters, this research aims to explore details of Matsuoka’s commercial involvement in land reclamation, tropical crop plantations and business operations in the Philippines as well as his relations with officials of the Government-General of Taiwan and Japanese civilians. Systematic analysis on the findings revealed that Matsuoka launched his agricultural and business ventures in the Philippines before World War I, and since 1915, had founded three companies in the Philippines with their holding companies established in Taiwan and Japan. Gathering financial resources from Japan, the Japanese in Taiwan and Taiwanese capitalists, and together with funding support from the Government-General of Taiwan, Matsuoka managed to raise sufficient capital for investing in tropical crop plantations in the Philippines. In 1936, Matsuoka’s business operations in the Philippines came to a halt due to both global economic recession and dwindling financial resources from Japan. The boom and bust of Matsuoka’s investments in the Philippines echoed the transition of the Government-General of Taiwan’s Southward Expansion policy from active engagement to stillness and silence between the late 1910s and the early 1920s; and served to illustrate how Japanese private enterprises in the Philippines were affected by events of great influence in the 1930s.
Keywords：Tomio Matsuoka, The Philippines, Matsuoka Development Company, Philippine Industry Company Limited, Davao City, Southward Expansion Policy
A Promising Medicinal Material: Coca Industry in Taiwan under Japanese Colonial Rule
Taiwan used to be one of the largest exporters of coca leaves in East Asia before 1945. This fluctuant history manifests the resonance with undulant global drugs market and the emergence of an international control system on narcotic drugs. To cast off the strap from the global market, Japan designated Taiwan in substitution for Java as source of coca leaves. With the second-mover advantage, the colonial agro-specialists select proper species and quickly produce sizable coca leaves within a decade. The international control system encouraged and legitimized the monopolized production system. Hoshi Pharmaceuticals Company and Taiwan Crude Drugs Company became the only two enterprises held the chartered right to cultivate coca trees and produce cocaine in Taiwan. On the other hand, this control system, from another aspect, conceals every process from production, distribution to consumption, which had been uncovered and presented in this article as the following main arguments and findings: 1) Vicissitude of the coca industry in Taiwan were associated with the emergence of an international drug control system. 2) Most of the illegal cocaine consumer was smuggler, but the socio-cultural traits of end consumer could not be identified. The majority of legal consumer was patient of ophthalmology, but users could be found among patients of gynecology, otolaryngology, and internal medicine as well. There were several side-effect records, but level of addiction could not be identified. 3) The tacit knowledge of the tea industry developed in Taiwan over the nineteenth century, which involved technological affinity with the coca industry, became the vital local factor for Taiwan to become the key coca producer in the Japanese Empire. However, this vital local factor was eradicated and gradually faded away from our memory due to another regulatory thinking and policy of the nationalist government in the post war period.
Keywords：Coca Industry, Coca Leaves, Cocaine, Narcotic Drug, Japanese Colonial History
“Scrutiny and Surveillance” on “The Special” during the White Terror
During the White Terror in Taiwan, the Kuomintang (KMT) authorities used various means to suppress and monitor existent and potential dissidents, in particular the political prisoners. Upon release, they were classified as “the Regenerated / New Life”, and together with “the Surrendered”, “the Registered” and “the Related”, they were collectively referred to as “the Special” (特殊份子). “The Special” usually fell under long-term “Scrutiny and Surveillance” (考管), with strict monitoring measures conducted in an absolutely secret manner. Coordinated by the Taiwan Garrison Command and its predecessor the Taiwan Provincial Security Command, the various security authorities as well as KMT party agencies, involved in the “Scrutiny and Surveillance” included the Bureau of Investigation, National Security Bureau, Taiwan Provincial Police Bureau and General Political Department of the Ministry of National Defense.
The number of “the Special” in 1973 was 24,417 and the total throughout the White Terror era was estimated to exceed 30,000. Among those put under “Scrutiny and Surveillance” for years were the former President Lee Teng-hui (1988-2000 in office) and many famous figures.
The “Scrutiny and Surveillance” on “the Special” was closely coordinated with Bao Fang (meaning “Counter-intelligence and counter-espionage) which was actually a nationwide monitoring network. The network was hugely mobilized and well-operated involving central and local security agencies, as well as the relatives, friends and neighbors of “the Special”, who were also asked to surveil and report on them. Those under “Scrutiny and Surveillance” were under exit restrictions, were not allowed to participate in political activities, and faced difficulties at work and promotion. The three-volume A Jail Beyond the Prison Wall (published by the Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica and the National Human Rights Museum Preparatory Office in 2014-2015) contained mainly the stories of “the Special”. Using official archives and materials from the general public, this article presents a brief introduction to the little-known political and social control systems of the White Terror era.
Keywords：“The Special”, “Scrutiny and Surveillance”, Monitoring System, “The Surrendered”, “The Registered”, “The Regenerated”, “The Related”, White Terror, Bao Fang
Formation of Taiwanese Consciousness and Mobilization of Ethnic Groups in Democratic Movement of 1970s: Focus on Taiwanese Language Concerns (1972-1978)
This article discusses the evolution of political attitudes and discourses of democratic movement in Taiwan on the Taiwanese language issue from 1972 to 1978 when the Kuomintang (KMT) government comprehensively suppressed Taiwanese-language TV programs. Moreover, it aims to investigate how the democratic movement in Taiwan evolved from a solely liberal political appeal to a political movement driven by a strong Taiwanese local consciousness and partly by ethnic mobilization throughout this period.
In 1972, the KMT government began to crack down on Taiwanese-language TV programs and strangled the living space of Taiwanese-language popular culture in an attempt to completely unify the vernacular language used in Taiwan. With Taiwanese being the mother tongue of the largest ethnic group in Taiwan, the Hoklo people, this policy immediately aroused dissatisfaction in Taiwanese society. In the provincial assembly and elections, pro-democracy activists were fighting for the language rights of the Taiwanese,
with focus primarily on defending the right of the elderly or rural citizens to watch TV programs of their mother tongue.
The KMT government stipulated the “dialect” sunset provision in the Radio and Television Act in 1975 in an attempt to entirely eradicate native languages in the public space. This further expanded the issue of the Taiwanese language, leading pro-democracy activists to challenge language oppression and make it their main political appeal for election mobilization. At the same time, the oppression of the Taiwanese language had become the most significant cause in the deterioration of ethnic identification.
Owing to the victory of non-KMT candidates in the local elections in November 1977 and the impact of the Zhongli Incident on the ruling authority of the KMT, the pro democracy activists gave increasing attention to the Taiwanese language issue. They not only openly challenged the KMT government’s language policy in the provincial assembly, but also expanded their appeal from fighting merely for Taiwanese-language TV shows to battling for the right to use the mother tongues of Taiwan’s intrinsic ethnic groups. During that period, in the discourse on the language issue in Taiwan, an obvious Taiwanese local consciousness emerged, and the role of ethnic mobilization became more visible. By December 1978, demand against language and ethnic identity discrimination had become one of the 12 most frequently cited political viewpoints of the democratic movement in Taiwan. Thereafter, the Taiwanese language issue was more than merely a TV program concern; it became a common appeal of political mobilization in the democratic movement
Keywords：Taiwanese, Ethnic Groups in Taiwan, TV Programs, Democratic Movement, Ethnic Politics
Locating Medical Histories, Caring the Local: A Review of and a Proposal for the Concept of “Locale” in the History of Medicine in Taiwan
Taking “locale” as the analytical perspective, this article, on the one hand, reviews the characteristics of medical history research in Taiwan since the 1990s, and on the other hand, proposes possible directions for future research. In the 19th century, research on medical history in the West emphasized mainly significant advances in the development of Western medicine and exemplary physicians, and it was carried out to complement the humanistic quality of medical education. In Taiwan after World War II, studies on the history of medicine were initiated only by a few doctors within the medical community, and focused more on introducing the history of Western medicine and less on Taiwan’s medical history. However, the history of medicine in Taiwan had taken center stage since the1990s under the influence of three research trends. First, with the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica as the main base, professional historians, the majority being scholars on Chinese medical history, launched research on Taiwan’s history of medicine and introduced Social History of Medicine, Cultural History of Medicine, and other academic developments in Britain and the United States into Taiwan. Second, with research on Taiwan history gaining momentum, some researchers turned their attention to medical-related issues, and began in-depth exploration of Taiwan’s political, social and cultural development in the light of discourses on diseases and medical professions. Third, around 2000, the emerging discipline of Taiwan Science, Technology and Society Studies attracted more interdisciplinary researchers to further explore how Taiwan’s unique medical knowledge and practices intertwined with its politics, society, and culture. Although research on History of Medicine in Taiwan became more established under these three academic trends, the studies centered around knowledge production, human resources development, and international assistance of medical centers primarily in Taipei and other big cities. Research on local medical history remained peripheral. Inspired by reflections on the relative power relationship between the center and the periphery in post-colonial studies, this paper argues that future researchers can delve into the locale-centered History of Medicine in Taiwan using concepts such as “medical market,” “territorial society” and “care”.
Keywords：History of Medicine in Taiwan, Locale, Territorial Society, Post-colonial Studies, Medical Market, Care