Using historical data, travelogues, and expedition records, this study examines the factors affecting the development of relationship between plains aborigine tribes in central Taiwan and their interactions. Under the Ch'ing government, all aborigine tribes were named She 社, while their Han counterparts were called Chuang 庄. Tribes of plains aborigines in central Taiwan came under the impact of external influence beginning from the 17th century. In particular, during the Ch'ing Dynasty (late 17th to late 19th century), social changes were rapid and interactions between tribes were intense. In the light of the multi-nature of She, this paper describes the original interaction network of the plains aborigine tribes and how Ch'ing governing policies changed the patterns of interaction among them. Apart from being a regional community with blood ties, She also serves as a unit for tax collection. To facilitate administration, the Ch'ing government grouped and integrated tribes in the same geographical location and appointed officials to organize tribal network and aborigine military colonies 番屯制. This perspective challenges the prevailing conception that plains aborigine tribes were loosely organized, with independent administrative structure and little interaction. Rather, the external influence from the government played a significant role in fostering closer relationship and more frequent interaction among tribes. In sum, reviewing the multi-nature of She would shed light on understanding the development of relationship between plains aborigine tribes and the factors affecting their interaction.
This essay discusses the changes of the Government-General's policies related to the establishment of the modern corporation law (近代公司法制), during early Japanese colonial rule in Taiwan. In traditional Taiwanese society, capital was raised mainly through joint-stock partnership (合股方式). After the opening of coastal ports to foreigners in the early 1860s, the merits of modern corporate organization (近代公司) were recognized by the local business sector through trading with the West. They therefore began to imitate the modern corporate system, (近代公司制度) and the term 'company' was used for their joint-stock commercial firms (合股商號). After Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895, businesspersons were quick to take up Japanese merchant law (商法), and started to adopt the term hui-sher or kai-sha (會社) for their firms. This represented their interest in and acceptance of the modern-company system. On the contrary, the government was less enthusiastic than the business circles in introducing the modern-company system. The Qing (Ch'ing was used in the abstract by Hung) Dynasty did not acknowledge the merits of the Western company system. The Japanese colonial government also placed little emphasis on introducing the modern corporate system, a situation contrary to the policies during Meiji Restoration in the Japan proper.
The main difference between the modern-company system and the traditional joint-stock firms was that the functioning of the former required government legislation to protect the interests of the investors. In the early stages, the Japanese Government-General tended to manage Taiwanese enterprises through joint-stock partnership. Starting in 1909, an executive order on Taiwanese corporation 「臺灣合股令」 was issued, and in 1912 Taiwanese enterprises were restricted to use the term 「會社」 for their firms by the order of the Government-General. (府令). Nevertheless, 「臺灣合股令」, with its basis on joint-stock partnership, did not gain the approval of the Japanese central government, and in 1923 the legal reform in the colony made Japanese merchant law applicable in Taiwan. Thereafter, Taiwanese commercial organizations were governed by Japanese merchant law.
Keywords：Early Japanese Colonial Rule in Taiwan, Government-General's Corporate Policies, modern-company system, joint-stock partnership
Business Operations of Taiwan Development Corporation on Hainan Island
The Taiwan Development Corporation (TDC), 1936-1946, is a semi-public national corporation funded by the Taiwan Government-General, sugar refinery business and financial conglomerates (Zaibatsu). By the order of the Japanese naval force, the TDC began business operations on Hainan Island in March 1939. The investment of TDC on Hainan Island was enormous, only second to Japan Nitrogenous Fertilizer and Ishihara Industries involved in mining; Asano Cement, an enterprise in the process of expansion by the order of the naval force; and Mitsui Bussan, a representative Zaibatsu. Though heavy, TDC's investment on Hainan Island was only limited to agriculture and forestry, livestock, transportation, ice-making, construction and lumbering industries; and was not involved in other developing industries such as fisheries, mining, electrical appliance (電氣事業) and telecommunications.
This paper first reconstructs the management history of TDC on Hainan Island and then explores why TDC's business operations were restricted to the abovementioned industries. Reasons including the change in the status of Hainan Island in the Great East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere, insufficient human capital like technical experts, lack of efficient and autonomous management, as well as high cost of production all pose constraints on TDC development.
Compared with San-wu Company, a representative enterprise of the 1900s, TDC had more and varied business operations, an indication of Taiwan's overall economic development in the three decades. Contrary to its free economic expansion, Tai-wan's imperialism was restricted by Japanese central government.
On the other hand, the reports of Taiwan Government-General contained great emphasis on the experience of rice cultivation and sugar cane plantation as well as the importance and possibility of selective breeding. This revealed the significant role played by Taiwan in Hainan's agricultural development. Reciprocally, Hainan Island also offered a base and opportunity for academic exploration and experimentation.
Keywords：The Taiwan Development Corporation, Taiwan Government-General, national policy corporation, Hainan Island, the Great East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere, Southward advance policy, San-wu Company
Categorization of Yueh Celadon Wares Recovered in the Taiwan Straits
The present essay addresses two groups of objects. The first are a series of Yueh-type celadon wares that were recovered from the Taiwan Straits and are now in the collection of the Graduate Institute of Art History at National Taiwan University. The second are Yueh-type samples gathered on the P'eng-hu Islands and recorded in the book Yueh-yao tsai P'eng-hu. The typological categorization made in this essay serves as the basis for investigating the chronology of the wares through comparison with relevant archeological evidence and several other Yueh-style celadons inscribed with the character yung. The investigation concludes that the Yueh ware samples recovered from the Taiwan Straits span over a long stretch of time from late T'ang through Northern Sung, with the majority of the pieces dated back to early Northern Sung period.