In Chinese documents about Taiwan during the Ch'ing dynasty, the word she (tribe or village) is an important term referring to the organization of the plains aborigines (p'ing-p'u tsu). Research to-date, however, has not determined adequately what a she refers to: is it a village or a tribe of plains aborigines? Some twentieth century scholars have come to define she as a village and, as I will argue, misinterpreted the she's actual significance.
Through a case study of the Nankang and Peikang she, this paper attempts to clarify our understanding of the term. I argue that the establishment of these two she in the eighteenth century was due to the creation of a tax system for aborigines who submitted to the authority of the Ch'ing dynasty. Out of imperial concern for its aboriginal subjects, the government applied a new system of reduced taxation known as the fan-ting-yin in the mid eighteenth century. The Nankang and Peikang she established at this time were initially set up as units of taxation and a commissioner (t'ung-shih) played an important role in overseeing land transactions between the aborigines and Han Chinese settlers.
The tax reforms initiated by Liu Ming-ch'uan in the nineteenth century brought about the end of the fan-ting-yin system and the abolition of the two she. The history of the origins, development, and end of the Nankang and Peikang she is therefore an excellent opportunity to discuss the nature of she in general.
Keywords：Nankang she, Peikang she, fan-ting-yin system
The Art of Lin Chan-mei's Calligraphy and Painting: An Analysis Based on the Ch'ien-yuan ch'in-yu-ts'ao
Taiwan became part of the Ch'ing Dynasty in 1684 and for more than one hundred years the development of Taiwanese traditional calligraphy and painting was dominated by Ch'ing officials and their advisors who came from the mainland. Not until the early 19th century, as a result of political, economic, and cultural change, did local Taiwanese elites begin to come to the fore. One such person was Lin Chan-mei, a member of the Lin Hen-mao family of Chu-ch'ien. Lin Chan-mei not only contributed to alleviating natural disasters and quelling rebellions, but also indulged in writing poems during the Tao-kuang (1821-1850) and T'ung-chih (1862-1874) reigns. He was both a prominent social leader and a sentimental and expressionist poet who should not be left out of the history of Taiwanese literature. By analyzing his poetry in Ch'ien-yuan ch'in-yu-ts'ao, the poetry of other literati, and the legends and history of the Hsinchu area, we learn that he also earned an excellent reputation for calligraphy and painting.
Because none of his paintings survive, this essay attempts to interpret Lin Chan-mei's aesthetics, creativity, and influence by analyzing his poetry, calligraphy, and official and non-official historical records. The activities of Lin Chan-mei reflect various cultural currents. He originally began in the traditional Literati school style, but developed into the unconventional Min-Che style. Thus, the study of Lin Chan-mei's art and aesthetics helps to clarify and re-construct the history of Taiwanese traditional calligraphy and painting from the 19th to the early 20th century.
Keywords：Literati school, Min-Che school, local culture, Ch'ing dynasty
Kai Yiu Chan：
A History of Aboriginal Migration in the Sun-Moon Lake Region, 1815-1934
This paper looks at the migration of aborigines in the Sun-Moon Lake region from 1815 to 1934 in order to understand the historical contacts between different aboriginal tribes (she) in the region. Previous research has utilized a concept of ethnicity (tzu-chun) introduced during the Japanese colonial period; however, this has led to a divergence between depictions in Ching literary records and Japanese ethnographies. I re-examine the growth of geographical and ethnographic knowledge of the Sun-Moon Lake region, chart the migration patterns of seven aboriginal tribes (the Shui, Tou, Valan, Shen-lu, She-tzu, Fu-ku, and Mu-chi-lan she), and detail the land reclamation and migration in the area by Han settlers.
The patterns of migration of these aborigines suggests that they formed a collective group with a strong internal cohesion during the nineteenth century. As a result, although some of the aboriginal tribes had initially settled in dispersed areas, in the end they chose to live together and form one settlement. The boundaries demarcating this group, moreover, differ greatly from the area traditionally ascribed to the Shui-sha-lien or Shao tribe and distinguish them from the plains aborigines (ping-pu tzu) who migrated into the region in the nineteenth century.
Keywords：Aborigines, Sun-Moon Lake region, migration, land reclamation, tribe (she), ethnic group (tzu)
A Preliminary Study on the Function of Taiwan's Cooperative Granaries in the Later Half of the Japanese Colonial Period
This is a study of the granaries operated by cooperative associations in the later half of the Japanese colonial period (1922-1942). These granaries consisted of two types: agricultural and rice granaries. I first trace the establishment and growth of these granaries. In order to find out the major function of these granaries, I compared the price of rice in Taiwan and Japan and found that their movement was highly correlated. I also found that the exports of Taiwanese rice to Japan fluctuated with the demand for it in the Japanese market. Furthermore, the capacity of these granaries was highly correlated to the exports of Taiwanese rice from 1922 to 1932. After 1933, however, the capacity of these granaries continued to increase while the amount of exports decreased, implying that these granaries expanded their capacities as a response to the policy of export control conducted by the Japanese colonial government during this time. Since the rice markets of Taiwan and Japan were highly integrated, this study suggests that the major function of cooperative granaries, with better facilities for storage and preparation, was to improve the quality of Taiwanese rice exports rather than to stabilize directly the price of rice in the market.