A traditional Chinese map, documented as the work of Yu Yong-he (郁永河), was found in a nineteenth-century book. Such discovery brought up new issues concerning the authorship and content of the map. For example, is it really drawn by Yu Yong-he? Does it reveal the geographical concept of the early Qing Empire?
Through examining different versions of Pi-hai Ji-you (《裨海紀遊》) and analyzing the text and narrative structure of the map, the author argues that the map reflects the Chinese perspective on the trade and geopolitical situation of East Asian Seas and offers insight into the marine geography in the beginning of the eighteenth century. Moreover,
the map contains both old and new geographical knowledge. Its spatial configuration had its basis on the so-called “eastern-western ocean (東、西洋)” knowledge framework, which originated from the Ming Dynasty; and its text was a symbolic representation of a new Minnan (閩南) maritime commercial network after the opening of maritime trade by the Qing Dynasty in 1684.
Keywords：Yu Yong-he, Pi-hai Ji-you, Commercial Network, East Asian Seas
Yu-ju Lin, Wei-dong：
Image of Taiwan Frontier before Lin Shuangwen Incident by Taiwan Purple-Line Aboriginal Boundary Map of 1784
With Taiwan incorporated under Qing rule in 1684, there was a massive influx of Han immigrants from the China Proper. They invaded the living space of the aborigines, resulting in constant disputes and conflicts. There were even major social unrest and outbreak of anti-Qing rebellions involving the aboriginal regions. To exercise its ruling
authority and to maintain law as well as order, the Qing court delineated clear boundaries between the Hans and the aborigines, thus separating their living areas and preventing further Han encroachment of aboriginal territories.
During the reign of Emperor Qianlong, four cadastral surveys were conducted on the lands outside the aboriginal frontier. Four maps were thus drawn up, each using lines of different colors, namely red, blue, purple and green. Among these, the blue-line map was the only aboriginal boundary map of Qing Taiwan preserved till today and served as the basis for related studies and discourse. However, there are missing place names, annotations and errors in the blue-line map. Hence, exploring other aboriginal boundary maps will contribute to the reconstruction of the frontier scene of eighteenth-century Qing Taiwan.
Housed in the Palace Museum of Beijing is a large-sized landscape painting map back to 1784. It is titled “Illustration of Taiwan Paddy and Dry Land Reclamation and Prohibitions of Land Use”. There are red, blue and purple lines marked on the map. The map shows emphasis on demarcating the aboriginal boundaries along the mountain areas and hence should be the “Purple-line Aboriginal Boundary Map of Qing Taiwan”, drawn up toward the end of Qianlong’s reign. There was also a 14,000-word description above the map, detailing the regulations and prohibitions for land reclamation in areas beyond the aboriginal frontier.
With reference to this precious purple-line map, this paper describes the demarcation of aboriginal frontier, which separated the living space of the aborigines from the newly reclaimed regions, thus providing an overall image of the frontier scene of Qing Taiwan in 1784 and the imperial territorial policy during the reign of Qianlong.
Keywords：Illustration of Taiwan Paddy and Dry Land Reclamation and Prohibitions of Land Use, Aboriginal Boundary, Frontier, Lin Dan Incident, Cadastral Survey
Taiwanese Senior Officials in Manchukuo: The Case of Graduates from Tatung Academy
Established in 1932, Tatung Academy（大同學院） was like a training institute for officials of the puppet government “Manchukuo”（「滿洲國」）. Only those who passed the national examination for senior civil servants, as stipulated by the 1938 Decree for Civil Servants（文官令）, could enrolled into Tatung Academy. The training period ranged from 6 to 12 months, followed by a year of internship.
Tatung Academy offered great attraction to Taiwanese during the Japanese colonial era. First, career opportunities in the colonial government were scarcely available for local Taiwanese who suffered unfavorable treatment. On the contrary, Manchukuo as an “emerging state” was in desperate need of talents with jobs that promised high salaries. In
its first phase of establishment, Tatung Academy recruited mainly Taiwanese and Korean graduates from Japanese universities and technical schools. From 1933 to 1945, there were 25 Taiwanese graduating from Tatung Academy. The majority of enrollees in the second phase were Manchurian and Han graduates from high schools in Manchuria.
During the seven years of this phase, there were four Taiwanese graduates. With the new system introduced in the second phase, the Academy took in mainly those who passed the promotion examination of senior civil servants and there was only one Taiwanese graduate. All 29 Taiwanese graduates eventually became senior officials in the Manchukuo government. After the Second World War, with the exception of one being dead and another opting to stay in the Mainland, all the remaining 26 graduates returned to Taiwan. However, their former service in the puppet regime posed obstacles for their being qualified for national and local examinations and their becoming civil servants in
the Republic of China. Worse still, their previous years of service were not counted. Despite the initial setback upon their return to Taiwan, the capability and competence of these graduates coupled with their “Manchurian experience” eventually earned them both opportunities and status in post-war Taiwan.
The academics had devoted much attention to the Taiwanese involved in anti-Japanese organizations in Chongqing（重慶）, showing little interest in these elites from Taiwan who had served in Manchukuo and their “Manchurian experience”. Comparatively, materials on the related history were also scarce. With reference to the Manchukuo Empire Official Gazette（《滿洲國政府公報》） and interview records, this study explores the establishment of Tatung Academy and its changing role after the promulgation of the Decree for Civil Servants in Manchukuo. Moreover, the reasons for the exodus of talents from Taiwan to Manchukuo, their experience, their return after World War II and their subsequent adaptations are also examined to shed light on this rather unique history of Taiwanese elites.
Keywords：Tatung Academy, Manchukuo, Taiwanese
Jin-shiu Jessie Sung：
Authority, Practice and History: Adoption and Re-creation of Yaoqian in Taiwan
In this paper, I aim to discuss the production of medical knowledge in rural Taiwan in light of the adoption and re-creation of prescription divinations (yaoqian), which entails an interrogation of the relation between authority,
practice and history. My data are derived from ethnographic fieldwork and the laboriously collected materials of yaoqian from temples. Involved in this production of medical knowledge are local authorities, individual specialists, and
the supplicants soliciting yaoqian. The key issues I raise include the following. How has such medical knowledge been historically established as a local practice? How has its healing efficacy been perceived by the faithful? What is thought to endow yaoqian with the power to heal in general? And further, what is the difference in essence between the diverse collections of yaoqian?
First of all, I suggested that the healing efficacy in soliciting yaoqian was perceived through a series of standard procedures with self-examination and easy access. Moreover, the solicitation of yaoqian is an act of divination established on the basis of morality and godliness of the worshippers. Among the procedures, the casting of wooden blocks (buabuei in South Fukien) serves as a cultural mechanism crucial for knowing what is unknown and obtaining multiple divine confirmations, which reflects the major logic of the practice.
Secondly, by using the ‘lineage’ approach instead of the divine origin ‘system’, I suggested that there exists ‘alienation’ between divine origins and healing power of yaoqian. There is no Dadaogong qian, Wuguwang qian, Lüzu
qian or Mazu qian in essence, since most Mazu qian, Dadaogong qian and Lüzu qian were used interchangeably by those temples dedicated to the three Gods of Medicine (yiyao shen) and the Goddess of Heaven (Mazu).
Finally, with my lineage analysis I noted that the decision on which collection of yaoqian was to be adopted by an individual temple was influenced by historical ties with its premier temple, as well as the changes in timeline. Moreover, the impact of social factors on the adoption and re-creation of yaoqian collections is of great importance. By tracing the circulation of Efficacious Prescription Divinations from Lüdi (Lüdi xianfang) with many editions published, I highlighted that the influence of printing and the performative mediator of phoenix halls (luantang) have contributed to the production of yaoqian. In particular, the initiated members of phoenix halls and local gentry with textual knowledge administrating luantang are crucial to the transmission and local adaptation of yaoqian knowledge.
Keywords：Soliciting Divination for Health Problems (zhanbu wenji), Prescription Divination (yaoqian), Local Practice, Phoenix Halls(luantang), Production of Medical Knowledge
Clothing Culture of Gentry in Early Colonial Taiwan
Contrary to most previous research which used newspaper or investigation reports
to examine social and cultural phenomena, this study analyzed the clothing culture of
Taiwanese gentry during the early Japanese colonial era using their diaries as the research
materials. While newspaper or investigation reports indeed contained descriptions on a
wide spectrum of phenomena, diaries allowed a closer look at the daily life of people with
more realistic portrayal. From their day-to-day depictions, one can know better their life,
the people surrounding them, their world views, emotions and values.
The dairies included in this study are Diary of Lin Hsien-tang, Diary of Chang
Li-jun, and Diary of Ng Ong-seng. As mentioned in these diaries, western men’s wear
had been gaining popularity after the cut braided wave of the 1910s. Since then, suits and
shirts were more frequently worn at many social occasions, and became the mainstream
attire for social functions. On the other hand, Japanese kimono also got gradually into the
lives of the Taiwanese gentry in the early Japanese colonial period, because it conformed
to the needs of Taiwanese daily living.
Originally, Taiwanese style of clothing was part of the daily wear and attire for
special and social occasions. Beginning from the 1910s, it faced intense competition from
western wear and was gradually replaced, though not totally taken over, by foreign
fashion. As seen in the life of Ng Ong-seng and Chang Li-jun, Taiwanese style of
clothing re-emerged in the second half of the 1910s and was seen at birthday celebrations,
memorial ceremonies for Confucius, funerals and other occasions. Obviously, Taiwanese
attire was worn at traditional and cultural functions. In particular, as seen in how Lin
Hsien-tang and Ng Ong-seng dressed themselves, robe had become a symbol of their
being Taiwanese and their cultural inclination, thus acquiring a special local, traditional
and cultural significance. In addition, there existed a multicultural phenomenon with the
mix-and-match of Taiwanese clothing, western fashion and the Japanese kimono. In view
of the above, Taiwanese under the Japanese rule seemed to embrace new fashion from
overseas while cherishing the traditional style of clothing.
Keywords：Diary, Clothing, History of Clothes, Suit, Western Clothes, Kimono, Early Japanese Colonial Period, Socio-Culture
Review of When Empire Comes Home: Repatriation and Reintegration in Postwar Japan by Lori Watt