This paper explores the changes in Qing territorial perceptions and frontier policies in nineteenth-century Taiwan. I trace the territorial question of aboriginal Taiwan to Qing quarantine doctrine in the eighteenth century and outline important historical contingencies and different local circumstances that shaped official debates on the aboriginal boundary policy in Gemalan and Shuishalian in early nineteenth century. Moreover, I point out the impacts of Sino-foreign negotiations and especially the territorial crisis of Japanese invasion in Langqiao that transformed Qing territorial discourse in the 1870s. The famous kaishan fufan campaign signifies the changing nature of Qing colonialism from passive quarantine to aggressive colonization. Despite the efforts of progressive officials, the late Qing colonial project was limited by its military, administrative and financial capacities in opening the mountains and pacifying the aborigines. Moreover, the territorialization of aboriginal Taiwan was continued by the Japanese colonial government after the cession of the island in 1895.
Keywords：Nineteenth-century Taiwan, Aboriginal Boundary, Quarantine, “Opening the Mountains and Pacifying the Aborigines (Kaishan Fufan)”, Territorialization
Multiple Imaginings and Transformations of Hanwen in Japanese Colonial Taiwan: Imperial Hanwen, Colonial Hanwen, Chinese Vernacular, and Taiwanese Vernacular
This paper explores the historical development of “Han-wu” and discusses the significance or characteristics of the successive language movements in Japanese colonial Taiwan.
The Chinese vernacular movement of Taiwan occurred under Japanese rule not as a result of sudden or external factors. Instead, it was catalyzed by two major forces. First, the magazine Taiwan Education Organization laid the internal foundation of Colonial Han-wu. Second, the visit of Liang Qichao from Mainland China provided further impetus to the movement by linking Chinese vernacular with Colonial Han-wu to form an imagined common literary form.
From the perspective of Han-wu development in East Asia, the imagined literary form was rooted in “Kundoku” (Chinese vocabularies spoken in Japanese) of Imperial Han-wu used in the post-Meiji Reformation era. It also provided the foundation for Colonial Han-wu to mix and merge with Chinese vernacular. To Japan and Taiwan, Imperial Han-wu and Colonial Han-wu were both agencies of the dual-structure languages in which people of different statuses, classes and cultural backgrounds communicated.
Chinese vernacular in Japanese colonial Taiwan emerged as an imagined common literary style. Such cultural phenomenon was only recognized and named in retrospect. Since Chinese vernacular was not meant to be a goal to be achieved or a policy to be implemented, the language that was put into actual practice was the ill-defined Colonial Han-wu, which was developed from a hybrid of complex factors. Consequently, upon realizing that the so-called Chinese vernacular was more imagined than real, unavailable and unfit for their needs, Taiwanese intelligentsia naturally turned to other languages, which eventually led to the debate of Taiwanese vernacular in the 1930s.
Despite the intricate and complicated development of Han-wu in Japanese colonial Taiwan, it did exist as the common literary form for mutual communication. Yet, the lack of support from the government and education system made it impossible for this literary form to be standardized, normalized or systematized. Such certainty gave rise to its Multiple imaginings and transformations, a feature characteristic of Taiwan as a colony in East Asian region. Furthermore, this literary form formed the kernel of modern Taiwanese language.
This article explores why and how the self-identity and social identity of leprosy patients were established from the disease, leprosy, itself. Examining the history of leprosy in Japanese colonial Taiwan from the social constructivist perspective, this article further analyzes the social conditions that shaped the identity of disease sufferers over the years. These multi-facet social conditions including the modern (western) medical system, public health policy, missionary medical service, and the founding of leprosarium interacted to account for the formation and transformation of leprosy patients’ self-identity and social identity. This study concluded with three main points. First, in the modern history of leprosy in Taiwan, the social identity of leprosy patients was formed only after Japanese rule. Second, most leprosy patients were transferred to two main kinds of institutions. One was run by the Japanese colonial government, like the Lo-Shen Leprosarium; and the other was administered by western missionaries or religious organizations, like the Happy Mountain Colony. The type of institution in which leprosy patients were resettled defined and determined largely their social identity. Finally, leprosy patients’ own personal life experience constituted a major force behind the shaping of their own identity.
Keywords： leprosarium, social identity of disease, Japanese colonial Taiwan, total institution, Lo-Shen Leprosarium, Happy Mountain Colony
Environmental Governance in Taiwan (1950-2000): An Analytical Study in the Light of Ecological Modernization and Eco State Theory
In research of contemporary environmental politics, both theories of ecological modernization and ecological states argue that the ‘state’ is the fundamental mechanism dealing with environmental crises. In the light of such argument, this paper analyzes the characteristics of environmental governance in Taiwan from 1950 to 2000.
This paper suggests that the policy-making history of environmental governance in Taiwan can be divided into two periods: the state-dominant period (1950-1979) and the multiple-forces period (1980-2000). During both periods, the focus was on people’s well-being and social welfare with great emphasis on production models. However, the contents of environmental governance implemented were marred by weak sustainability and contradictions.
In conclusion, this paper proposes that the government of Taiwan did initiate ecological modernization. In other words, it had launched environmental reforms even before the grassroots movement took off, much like the situation in Western industrial countries. During the second half of the 20th century, Taiwan responded only passively to ecological challenges, lacking an active or comprehensive approach; and thus has far to go before it can fulfill the role of an ecologically sustainable state.
Keywords：Ecological Modernization, Ecological State (eco state), Environmental Crisis, Environmental Governance, Sustainable Development
Taiwan Historical Research: Retrospect and Prospect
This paper offers an overall retrospective review and assessment of Taiwan Historical Research through tracing its founding and development, detailing its organization structure and publication system, as well as exploring the thematic characteristics of different issues. Concrete suggestions on areas for future improvement and directions for prospective expansion are proposed in the conclusion of this paper in the hope of broadening the scope and enhancing the depth of Taiwan Historical Research as a leading journal in research of Taiwan history.
Throughout the 15 years of publication, Taiwan Historical Research has undergone much change and its transformation has constituted a part of the founding of the Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica. This paper highlights to the scholarly circles the insistence of the Institute on quality of academic journal and the rigorous publication system it established. At the same time, it also reveals the trends and evolution of past research focus, which lay the groundwork for and contribute to the study on Taiwan historical research in the domain of historiography. The retrospective review added to the prospective view fosters further exploration of new research themes and help restructure the past development of Taiwan history.
Keywords：Taiwan Historical Research, Taiwan History Field Research Office, historiography, review, edit, retrospect, prospect