The paper discusses why the Sinkan descendents in the late nineteenth century were able to either construct their “red-haired connection” or imagine their “red-haired ancestors” in a more subtle and detailed manner, when compared with other Austronesian tribal peoples once under the seventeenth-century Dutch regime. The paper argues that the Dutch experiences of the Sinkan people were quite different from those of others, including their other Sirayan ethno-linguistic counterparts. The differences include interaction experiences, conversion processes, tribal hierarchies to church district demarcation and intermarriage patterns. The Sinkan people, however, suddenly lost their potential status as the cultural broker in the European colony when the Dutch were ousted from Taiwan, and their relatively intimate “red-haired connection” can only serve as a colorful text for their offspring to appropriate and imagine.
Keywords：Dutch East India Company or VOC, Sinkan, Red-haired (Dutch) people
Colonial Archives and Imperial Formation: The Representation of Taiwan "Civilized" Savages in Qing Manchu Palace Memorials
In this paper, I argue that the Qing Dynasty can be seen as a colonial empire in the context of comparative imperial history. From this perspective, palace memorials can be viewed as a kind of colonial archives reflecting the effort of the Qing Empire in governing its colonies. Three Manchu palace memorials concerning Taiwan’s “civilized” savages during the Kangxi reign (1662-1722) using the methodologies of historical anthropology and postcolonial theory were examined. The Qing Empire classified ‘barbarians’ into civilized (shou) or “cooked” and uncivilized (sheng) or “raw” people, according to their relative distance from the central, dominant culture. I will analyze the representational and rhetorical features of three Manchu palace memorials, dated from 1717 to 1722, and compare them with the Chinese local gazetteers, a different type of document. Even though palace memorial and gazetteer are both colonial archives of the Qing Empire, their narrative and rhetoric constitute essentially different genres. Through comparing these different genres in Manchu- and Chinese-language archival materials, we can breakthrough the limitations imposed by using Chinese-language materials exclusively. Analyzing a diversity of documents further highlights the multiplicity of Qing colonial discourse and rhetoric. The themes of this paper are in dialogue with contemporary Pingpu (civilized, or “cooked” savage) studies; at the same time, I also endeavor to draw Manchu-language documents into the mainstream of academic discourse.
The cadastral survey data collected by the Japanese at the beginning of colonial rule revealed an atypical land tenancy of tribesman’s ration plot in the Anli new territory. The land survey eventually confirmed, not without fierce dispute, that the rent collected from tribesman’s ration plot was a kind of small-rent, in contrast to big-rent widely taken as an attribute of the aborigine land tenancy. As shown in the data, rent from ration plot constituted the bulk of aboriginal rent and was essential to tribesman’s subsistence. Moreover, it forms the key to understanding ethnic relations and conflicts between aborigines and Hans in the region. Using Qing archives, this article explores the formation of aborigine small-rent land tenure in the Anli new territory and explicates its distinction from as well as relation with big-rent. Tracing the transformation of land tenancy in tribesman’s ration plot, the author aims to illuminate the land dispute between aborigines and Hans as a consequence of changing tenancy terms. The cadastral survey data collected by the Japanese colonial government provide a detailed portrayal and make possible verification of figures, character, and location of Anli aborigine small-rent documented in Qing archives.
Keywords：Aborigine land rights, tenancy terms, tenancy dispute, ethnic relations
Nation, Class and Cuitural Presentation: "Taiwanese Cuisine" During Japanese Colonial Era and Early Post-war Taiwan
Focusing on the changing notions of “Taiwanese cuisine” under different political regimes, the article traces the origins of “Taiwanese cuisine” into the Japanese colonial eraperiod of time, and analyzes how its meaning changestransferred from “a delicate culinary culture” into “a marginalized Chinese local cuisine” after the impositionlaunch of authoritarian rule. While “Taiwanese cuisine” was shaped during the Japanese colonial eraperiod, it was referred to a repertoire consisting of Chinese haute cuisines, formal dining manners and specific table setting, and beingwhich was enjoyed exclusively by elites with power of cultural presentation. Through culinary narratives, exhibitions and repeated dining practice, such as the banquet for Japanese royal family, the “Taiwanese cuisine” was distinguished fromwith Chinese cuisine and embedded with symbolic meanings of social status, cultural capital and Taiwanese-ness. However, such “Taiwanese-ness” is given new interpretation can be reinterpreted with the changing of political regime and new class in power. With the end of Japanese colonization and new regulations imposed by the KMT government on restaurants since 1945, the culinary map was redrawn and the haute “Taiwanese cuisine” sank into oblivion.
Keywords：Taiwanese cuisine, national cuisine, cultural presentation, colonial culture