The hoko (pao-chia in Chinese) system was crucial for Japanese colonial rule in Taiwan. As a system of Chinese origin for social control, it has attracted considerable attention but little serious research.
The few academic works on this topic are by and large limited to discussing the functions of the system, rather than its actual operations and role in society. The study of hoko secretaryship, based on the author’s field research, is key to understanding the system as an organic institution.
The study elaborates on the establishment, role, and economic conditions of the hoko secretaryship in historical perspective. It delineates the operation of the hoko system, thus enabling us to more clearly understand the process of Japan’s wartime mobilization. The examination of the role of the hoko secretaryship was thus placed within the context of Japan’s local administration of Taiwan.
Further study will shed light on the differences in household administration between colonial and postwar Taiwan. Finally, the interaction between state and society suggests avenues for future theoretical analysis and empirical research.
A Comparison of Research on Chinese Phonology By Ogawa and Karlgren: With A Critique on Ogawa;s Position in History of Modern Chinese Linguistics
Karlgren’s monumental work “Etudes sur la phonologie chinoise”(1915~26)has no doubt exerted great influence on Chinese phonology and dialectology. He reconstructed the sound values of Middle Chinese on the basis of 33 Chinese dialects, Sino-Japanese, Sino-Korean, and Sino-Vietnames.
However, before Karlgren, a similar effort had already been made by a Japanese scholar, Ogawa Naoyoshi, as early as 1907. He reconstructed the phonetic values of Middle Chinese initials and final consonants and, in some respects, achieved more reasonable results. This was highly significant in the history of Chinese linguistics.
This paper has twomain goals. One is to compare the studies on Chinese phonology made by Karlgren and ogawa, particularly on phonetics, historical linguistics, and phonological comparison: the other is to explain why ogawa has been ignored, in spite of his achievements in the field of Chinese linguistics.
In terms of research methodology, we regard Karlgren as superior to Ogawa in the reconstruction of the phonetic values of Middle Chinese, as well as in the investigation and description of Chinese dialects. However, in terms of research results, there are some respects in which ogawa is superior to Karlgren. The most important thing is that ogawa was the first scholar to study Chinese using modern linguistic methods, and therefore his position as a pioneer in the history of modern Chinese linguistics deserves to be recognized.
Preliminary Study of the Myth of Origin and Legend of Distrbution of Taiwan Indigenous Ami Society: With Further Discussion About the Affinities Among the Ami Subgroups
There are two aims in this paper : one is to present the types and themes of the myth of origin and the legend of distribution of Ami society ; discuss the afiinities among the Ami subgroups through the comparison of their myth, legend, language, as well as genetic distances of ABO blood groups.
Making a comparison among the myth and legend of the Ami subgroups, we find that the types of mythology of the northern and the central subgroups are closer than that of the southern one. This tentative result is also supported by the data of ABO blood groups of Ami people. The genetic distances of ABO blood groups between the central and the southern subgroups are shorter than that to be compared with the Peinan-Ami dialects, part of the central dialectal groups in near the northern group, however another is near the southern group. Moreover, with the analysis of the phonetic system, the primitive feature on the northern Ami dialect is another important point need to be considered.
With the above analyses, we tentatively make the following conclusions: first, since the northern Ami has the most primitive feature on its phonetic system, therefore it might be able to refer that this subgroup could be the earliest Ami society in Taiwan. Afterwards , some of the northern Ami people might have extended southward and interacted with the central Ami frequently and closely, that is why there are obvious affinities between the northern and the central Ami subgroups on the myth, legend, and blood groups distributions. However, in contrast with the other two Ami subgroups, the southern Ami owns the most specific features on its myth, legend, and blood groups. One of the reasons raised here is that since the seventeenth century, the southern Ami might have interacted more closely with its neighbouring Puyuma trbes(another indigenous people living in south-eastern coast of Taiwan) than with other Ami subgroups.