The Sino-French War of 1884-85 appears to have been forgotten by the French people, despite large quantities of veritable memoirs, archives, documents and researches resulting in an acceptable history of this war that have been done over the past 120 year. These efforts tend to fade away from the collective memory of the French people and are likely to disappear eventually. After all, only the past colonial Indochina has remained their main concern, whereas the Keelung and Tamsui Battles in Taiwan were but just some of the episodes in the nearly forgotten war.
In China, by contrast, there is a bulk of published books, documents and researches concerning the Sino-French War. These accounts include several major historical events which provoked heated debates and are not yet clarified in the related literature. Futhermore, there are inconsistencies in the relevant evaluations. As time passes by, the story/history of the Sino-French War is still clouded in a complete fog of nationalism in China, as described by Hegel: "People create history, but they don't understand the history created by them."
Taiwan was involved in this war of 1884-85 for no good reason but for the gage. The diplomatic failure or the disobedience of the generals, which led to the battles in Taiwan, showed the absurdity of this war. This paper first compares the battles in Keelung and Tamsui by popular pictorial newspapers available at that time in China and France, and further indicates the differences between the historical events and their collective memory/memories. Selected memory, motivational omission, fabrication and/or exaggeration might be one or more of the mechanisms for the distortion in collective memory. They tend to give simplified explanations and to obtain a self-satisfied image by exaggerating or embellishing the historical context.
The research findings on the related literature have been published continuously, but these do not seem to have crucial effect on the people's collective memory of the period, particularly when their emotions and religious beliefs are involved. This makes clarifications in the historical events very difficult. All in all, objective research must seek truths from facts, and the public shouldn't be misled even by official records and writings.
Keywords：the Sino-French War, Keelung, Tamsui, French-Vietnamese War, Dian shi zhai pictorial, collective memory
Tuberculosis Control Policies and Discussion in Taiwan during Japanese Colonial Period
This article is aimed at analyzing the control policies and researches on tuberculosis adopted by Japanese colonial government. It also covers treatment of and prevention recommendations on tuberculosis made by doctors and health personnel. First, the article will analyze the death rate of tuberculosis for Taiwanese and Japanese residing in Taiwan during the Japanese colonial period. The analysis shows such death rate is lower for the Japanese who resided in Taiwan than the Taiwanese and the Japanese who lived in Japan. Tuberculosis did not pose a significant threat on Japanese residing in Taiwan at that time. In addition, Japanese colonial government focused on treating contagious diseases to prevent epidemics. Therefore, it was not until 1915 that designated sanitariums were established.
Second, the article analyzes the establishment of tuberculosis treatment and prevention institutes and the announcement of related regulations during the Japanese colonial period. This aspect focuses on the comparison of tuberculosis treatment and prevention institutes and the announcement of related regulations between colonial Taiwan and Japan. The comparison reveals that when treatment was the main focus of the fight against tuberculosis, the shortage of beds available for people infected with tuberculosis became a serious problem. The announcement of the "Anti-Spitting Law" and the "Tuberculosis Prevention Law" in Taiwan came ten to twenty years later than that in Japan. Japanese colonial government took on an active role in the prevention of tuberculosis in the 1920's and 1930's. This was closely related to the need for manpower and strengthening the aptitude of the population as a result of the war. Third, the article analyzes researches and prevention recommendations on tuberculosis during the Japanese colonial period. Although German scientist Robert Koch had already established the theory that "the disease was caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis" in 1882, some doctors still emphasized on the important roles played by "constitution," "heredity," or "endemic" in the process of being infected with tuberculosis. What is worth noting is the way tuberculosis was treated during the Japanese colonial period. Treatments of tuberculosis were mostly for supportive therapies which focused on prolonging the life of and relieving the pain suffered by patients. The administration of medicine was only for the treatment of symptoms. Convalescence in a quiet environment was the general rule at that time. Finally, the article points out that, although the death rate of tuberculosis decreased slowly during the Japanese colonial period, actions taken by Japanese colonial government had some impacts on tuberculosis control measures taken by the subseguent KMT government.
Keywords：tuberculosis, phthisis, Taiwan medical history, disease history
The Conflicts between Taiwan Provincial Government and Inspectorate General of Customs Taiwan Office during 1945-1947
After World War II, Taiwan Provincial Government with Chen I as the leader became the highest governing authority of Taiwan, and the Koumintang Central Government in Nanking authorized Chen I to direct and supervise all of its subsidiary institutions on the island. Legally and administratively speaking, Chen I held the highest authority in Taiwan. The focus of this paper is the Taiwan Inspectorate General of Customs, a Central Government subsidiary institution, which took over the Customs affairs from the Japanese and also oversaw Taiwan's post WWII trade policy. The paper also evaluates Chen I's administrative and supervisory abilities over such a Central Government institution.
Based upon available Customs archival materials, there were serious disagreements between Taiwan Provincial Government and Taiwan Inspectorate General of Customs, ranging from who should own and manage the Japanese Customs property and who had the jurisdiction over the island's harbors, to the trade policy and supervision of such economic staples as rice, sugar, as well as industrial materials and important goods. Clearly, there was a serious dispute over the jurisdiction of the Taiwan Customs that Chen I and Taiwan Provincial Government could not effectively rule Taiwan. Such a problem stemmed from the fact that Taiwan and China had been separated from one another for 50 years and, during this half-a-century separation, the Japan-ruled Taiwan and the chaotic China had developed their separate governing institutions. Ultimately, these two different systems collided when there were mingled together. It is against this background that one can better comprehend the significance of Taiwan Provincial Government, established by the Kuomintang government right after WWII. Because Kuomintang's Central Government was not constitutionally based, its relationship with Taiwan was tenuous and Chen I's authority on the island was thereby limited. This is why during Chen I's tenure in Taiwan, Taiwan Provincial Government and Taiwan Inspectorate Customs had so many disputes and incessant conflicts, seriously hampering the effectiveness of trade management.
The study aims to investigate the Alisan Tsou's traditional kuba (man's house), its construction method, space & form, and changing process, as well as its meaning and the reason behind the transformation. During the course of this study and after reviewing relevant theories, the researcher proposes a theoretical framework called "the inner mechanism and outer impacts of a socio-cultural group's dwelling culture configuration."
After literature review and historical images examination, the researcher finds that before Professor Chichiwa's survey and recording, Alisan Tsou's kuba actually had had a "traditional form." The traditional kuba is a meeting place of main settlement, where males gathered and trained, as well as for night accommodation. Whenever there were fighting among tribes, kuba became the place, from where an expeditionary force was sent. It is also the stage holding annual mayasvi (ceremony of fighting) and ritual of victory after winning a fight. In the Tsou's cultural symbolic system, kuba is not only the symbol of consolidation among main and satellite settlements where groups of clans live. In term of metaphorical meaning, piled kuba with sacred yono (fig tree) and fiteu (wild orchid leaves) imply that in such a sacred realm, the tribe's male and hidden Goddess are welcoming God, (Hamo) from the heaven. In that sense, kuba becomes an ultimate symbol of "the fire of tribe's life," in contrast to emoo (house) as the "fire of clan's life" which accommodates the male/female realms and millet goddess/hunting god under one roof, but no piled except those wood frame for holding animal skulls. In the traditional period, kuba not only coincides with the Tsou's culture and social life, but also symbolizes a physical complex of their socio-cultural symbolic system.
During the period of being forced to be acculturated, probably because the Tsou kept a good relationship with the Japanese, all of the clans still cooperatively maintained kuba, and held mayasvi, thus maintained their Tsou tradition. After World War II, inspit of Christian influense and Kuomintang's "White Terror," as well as changes of production mode, Alisan Tsou never the less kept their clans together and constantly maintained kuba and the simplified mayasvi too. All of these formed "a period of formalism" of kuba, since it didn't contain a collective life of males in the tribe anymore. Due to the island-wide democratic progress and the development of tourism in 1980s, the solidity among Tapan and Tufuya groups expanded to all the Tsou ethnic group. The symbolic meaning of kuba and mayasvi referring to ethnic group's identity has been highly promoted. Adding more traditional elements and decorations to its newly remodels, kuba soon merges from its "period of display" to "period of revival" during tle past ten years.
Keywords：Mount Ali, the Tsou, kuba, Transformation, Change, Reconstruct
On Woolen Dog: Study of a Peculiar Extinct Dog Existed in Taiwan and America
The adaptation of the hair of woolen dogs for textile had been adopted by both Formosan and American aborigines since ancient time. Similarity existed in the applications of dog wool of these two regions in hair color, dye-applying and weaving of the hair, as well as the type of textile fabricated. This essay discusses the history of the dog wool utilization and the disappearance of the woolen dog. In addition, the probable origin, the morphology, the domestication method, and the possible social causes of the domestication of the woolen dog are also addressed.
Keywords：woolen dog, domestication, Formosan aborigines, American aborigines