This article traces the history and reorganization of the Bureau of Investigation and
Statistics (BIS) into the Secrets Bureau and examines the role played by the Secrets
Bureau in the 228 Incident of 1947.
In the early post-WWII years, the investigation team under the Taiwan Provincial
Garrison Command had a dual identity of being the BIS-Taiwan Branch. Chen Dayuan
(陳達元) served as the head of both the investigation team and the BIS-Taiwan Branch.
In July 1946, the BIS-Taiwan Branch was reorganized into the Secrets Bureau and led by
Lin Dingli (林頂立). Though separate and independent of each other, the investigation
team and the Secrets Bureau worked closely together.
The newly established Secrets Bureau comprised three divisions. By 1947, it
further had five communication groups, a student movement group, and a worker
movement group. To maintain its operations clandestine, pseudonyms were used in all
contacts and exchanges between members, groups and organizations.
Upon the outbreak of the 228 Incident, Chiang Kai-shek commanded Zheng Jiemin,
the head of the Secrets Bureau, to send Liu Geqing (劉戈青) to Taiwan. Liu was
entrusted with the tasks of assisting Chen Dayian to quell the unrest and to ensure the
safety of Zhang Xueliang (張學良). During the 228 Incident, all branches of the Secrets
Bureau were actively collecting information and intelligence. Some agents even
infiltrated into the 228 Incident Management Commission to spy on the uprising and to
influence its development. Through offering intelligence and advice to Chen Yi (陳儀),
the BIS-Taiwan Branch gained Chen’s trust and attained greater authority to suppress the
riots. Though being secret agents, they could work openly with the army and the police to
arrest rebels and dissidents.
Keywords：228 Incident, Bureau of Investigation and Statistics (BIS), Secrets Bureau, Taiwan Branch, Taiwan Provincial Garrison Command
During the 228 Incident of 1947, volunteer fire brigades became nongovernmental
self-defense organizations that assisted the police in enforcing law and order in Taiwan.
This article investigates the emergence of volunteer fire brigades in Taiwan as well as
their role and experiences during the 228 Incident. Moreover, it traces the history and
development of these self-defense organizations from post-World War II until 1947.
It was found that following the outbreak of the 228 Incident, the contingency
management system established toward the end of the Japanese colonial era became
operational, with volunteer fire brigades functioning as paramilitary groups for
maintaining law and order. In some cities, the fire/air raid alarm system was employed to
broadcast emergency alerts while fire engines were utilized as weapons for attack. With
228 Incident Settlement Committees set up all over Taiwan, many members from the
volunteer fire brigades were recruited to join the security, guard and fire departments. In
fact, most members of the fire brigade were made responsible by the local administration
or the police department to maintain public order. However, some of those active fire
brigade members in the 228 Incident Settlement Committee were later prosecuted and
arrested by the authority. Nonetheless, most were detained for several months and
eventually released after trial and investigation.
Keywords：228 Incident, Fire Brigade, Police, Early Postwar Era, Takeover, Lin Lien-cheng
Lies behind Suppression: A Study on Legitimacy of Nationalist Government in 228 Incident
During the 228 Incident, 1947, the Nationalist Government concocted fictitious
plights of Mandarin victims. In these fabricated stories, thousands of Mainlanders and
children were brutally killed, and many women were raped. These untruths cooked up
and propagandized by the authority served to provide the legitimacy of suppression. The
Nationalist Government used these lies to defame the protesters, libeling them as ‘mobs’,
thus justifying their act of using violence to restore order.
Tracing the case of a Mainlander female teacher who was ‘claimed’ to have been
raped and died, this article illustrates how the Nationalist Government forged falsehoods
and used libels and lies as tools in their propaganda for legitimacy of suppression in the
Keywords：228 Incident, Legitimacy, Chen Yi, Chiang Kai-shek, Taiwan Garrison General HQ, Office of Governor-General of Taiwan, Bureau of Investigation and Statistics
Political Trial from China: Chen Yi-song, Liu Ming and Bureau of Investigation and Statistics
With reference to abundant first-hand archives, this article explores the activities of
Chen Yi-song and Liu Ming in the early post-WWII era, their roles in the 228 Uprising,
and what befell them afterwards. Analyzing their rise and fall in the political arena would
shed light on the characteristics of the Kuomintang (KMT) rule in post-war Taiwan.
The analysis revealed that the Bureau of Investigation and Statistics (BIS) was the
first institution of KMT government entered into Taiwan. The BIS maintained
surveillance of Taiwan society using underworld gangsters. With the outbreak of the 228
Incident, the KMT government penetrated the 228 Settlement Committee in various ways
to control the development of the situation. Both Chen Yi-song and Liu Ming were key
members of the Committee; and according to newly discovered archives, they cooperated
with the KMT secret service. These findings shed new light on the governing tactics
under Chen Yi and led to re-evaluation of the 228 Settlement Committee.
Despite being collaborators of the KMT rule, Chen and Liu eventually suffered
persecution. Their tribulations brought to light several characteristics of Chinese political
culture, including ruthless power struggle among different factions within the government,
severe infighting and keen competition among cliques within the same faction, and those
in power having no clear standards for reward or punishment. Most frightening of all, the
spirit of rule of law was non-existent; hence, secret agents would frame innocent people
for personal gain or use illegal means against opponents.
Being unfamiliar with the Chinese political culture, Chen and Liu faced harsh
setback in their political careers. In retaliation, Chen fled Taiwan to Communist China;
while Liu, upon release from imprisonment, became very active in the opposition
movement in protest against the KMT government.
Keywords：Bureau of Investigation and Statistics (BIS), Juntong, Political Culture, Chen Yi-song, Liu Ming, 228 Uprising
A Critical Analysis of the Study of Deerskin Trade in Early Modern Taiwan: Review of Ts’ao Yung ho’s Chin-shi Taiwan Lu-pi Mau-i Khau
Deer hunting and deerskin trade had been topics of research ever since the Japanese
colonial era. However, with the changes in political power and regimes, different
perspectives had been adopted. Ts’ao Yung ho’s study on deerskin trade in early modern
Taiwan is considered the first scholarly investigation on such issue in Taiwan. Though
published in 2011, the research manuscript written by Ts’ao Yung ho dated back to the
The main purpose of this critical study is to analyze the development of research on
deerskin trade and compare the various perspectives adopted by scholars of different
nationality and in different eras. In particular, this critical study contains a review of Ts’ao
Yung ho’s publication Chin-shi Taiwan Lu-pi Mau-i Khau to examine whether this past
research has any inspiration for further study on this issue.