Sukiyaki (スキヤキ) is a type of Nabe Ryori (hotpot cuisine) developing during the
Meiji Era. Served with beef as its major ingredient, which was viewed as a symbol of
western civilization, it was a revolutionary nouvelle cuisine endowed with a sense of
“civilization” to the Japanese of that period. This style of cooking was welcomed by the
local intellectuals and spread quickly, it also developed into a particular consumer
awareness, and even formed a specific consumer group.
Focusing on the sukiyaki experiences of Taiwanese during the Japanese colonial
era and the post-war years, this paper analyzes how Japanese culinary culture became
embedded in the daily life of Taiwanese. The consumption of Japanese cuisine, including
sukiyaki, was motivated by the desire to learn the “Japanese way of life”. As sukiyaki
tasted and was cooked like Taiwanese dishes, it was easily integrated with local foodways.
In addition, sukiyaki was a cuisine well-liked by the intellectual class in Taiwan not only
because of its own significance in cultural advancement, but also due to the affective
sentiments aroused among peers sharing the food from the same hotpot, a realization of
the attributes of freedom and equality in modern communities. It was even introduced to
the household domain that it became an important cuisine for the intellectual class to
foster happy family life. This situation indicates that the acceptance of Taiwanese
intellectuals with modern ideological trend, including nutritional and health care
knowledge, or community-life experiences was also important factors to guide changes in
the household diet.
Along with the regime changed to the post-war period, the social meaning of
sukiyaki also evolved. It became a medium for mutual comfort and the preservation of
previous warm friendships for those who experienced the time of Japanese rule. Sukiyaki on that meaning acted as a tool for seeking mutual understanding in the
Keywords：Sukiyaki, Foodways, Intellectual Class, Community Awareness, Food Consumption, Japanese Cuisine
From “Boudoir Blues”, Port Songs to Japanese Adaptations: Transformation of Taiwanese Popular Songs, 1930s-1960s
For countries with coastlines, ports not only offered access to high seas and
hence opportunities for development; but also served as important gateways for
people fleeing or returning. “Port songs” was a genre of Taiwanese popular music
with themes or backgrounds about the sea/harbor/port. This research traced the surge
of port songs and compared their similarities and differences in pre- and post-WWII
eras to shed light on the transformation of Taiwanese popular songs and to illustrate
their intricate relationships with society, culture, economics, ethnic groups and history
Findings of this study are as follows.
(1) The formation and transformation, opening and closing of ports were
closely related to the pre-war politics of capitalism and militarism, as well as the
post-war historical experiences including the 228 Incident and the imposition of
martial law by the Kuomintang (KMT) Government.
(2) Ports carried the collective memories and imaginations of people of a
particular era. When writing, reading, listening or singing port songs, these memories
and imaginations endowed Taiwanese in those days with both means and room for
richer interpretations to be drawn and more metaphors to be made. Port songs, as a
popular culture, thus contained allegories of the plight suffered by the people and
initiatives for criticizing and denouncing the harsh reality they faced.
(3) Under the impact of the 228 Incident, port songs written in the early 1950s
reflected not only the socio-economic desolation experienced by the Taiwanese, but
also portrayed vividly the anxiety and anguish against disparity in treatment received
by the Taiwanese and the Mainlanders under the KMT Government, the suppressed urge for rebellion against such injustice and the subsequent low-esteem as
(4) Port songs written in the late 1950s featured the social context in which
grass-root Taiwanese trapped in economic deprivation were forced to leave their
homes for better opportunities elsewhere, and also reflected the feeling of exhaustion,
both physical and mental, commonly shared by the people of that era. Incidentally,
such context and feeling were consistent with the predicament and sentiment of the
rural population in the early post-war era. The implementation of land reform policy
forced the rural population to abandon their land and migrate to cities in search for
livelihood and survival.
(5) Although the destinations for these rural migrants were cities rather than
ports, such spatial switch between cities and ports offered an opportunity for
analogies and metaphors to be drawn. There existed a translational relationship
between port songs and the reality.
The widespread popularity of and hence the huge demand for Taiwanese port
songs brought about the trend for Japanese productions to be adapted or ‘re-created’.
Along with these adaptations, singing techniques of enka were embedded into the
Taiwanese re-creations and eventually became a unique characteristic of Taiwanese
popular songs, making them distinctive from their Mandarin counterparts.
The transition from traditional music and pre-war pop music framework with
songs featuring feminine, indoor, and feeble elements to post-war modern music with
‘port songs’ characterized by masculine, outdoor and robust qualities reflect directly
or indirectly the shift of Taiwanese popular culture in dependence and resemblance
from inland (the Mainland) to overseas (Japan).
Shortly after the 228 Incident, which the Nationalist Government perceived as an
island-wide rebellion, the authorities launched military repression supplemented with
judicial persecution. This article explores how the 228 Incident became a “rebellion”, and
probes into the complex relationships between politics, law, and military system under
the Nationalist Government. As this study points out, the conveniently defined “228
Rebellion” was initially a spontaneous protest against the incompetent Governor-General
Office, and eventually developed into a movement for political reform. Nevertheless,
with the looming Chinese Civil War and influenced by the nationalist sentiment, the
military/police, the intelligence bureaus, and the Governor-General Office all exaggerated
the severity of the Incident and categorized it as a rebellious movement. Taking such
view of the Taiwan authorities, the Nanjing Government dispatched troops to the island
and launched a crackdown on the protesters.
Although the Nanjing Government later discovered the exaggeration behind the
reports from the authorities, it did not cease the military repression or persecution. Instead,
it was only after the accomplishment of military repressions`(so-called pacifying and
cleaning the countryside (綏靖與清鄉) did the government lifted the martial law in May,
1947, and the 228 Incident finally came under the ordinary court. Injustice of former
military trials was unveiled but the central government did not rectify previous verdicts
for the sake of maintaining its ruling power and reputation. Worse still, political
interference cast its shadow over the legal system. Examining the retributions after the
Incident revealed not only the significant roles of both the Chinese Civil War and the
nationalist sentiment, but also the power hierarchy of the Nationalist Government, in
which the military authorities enjoyed supremacy over both politics and law.
Keywords：228 Incident, Rebellion, Military Repression, Military Trial, Ordinary Justice
Paragons of Post-war Taiwan Literature: Lu Xun to Yu Yu-jen with Rise and Decline of Classical and Modern Literature
A well-known phenomenon of post-war Taiwan literature is the predominance of
Lu Xun. In contrast, Yu Yu-jen, a revolutionary veteran who also had lots of influence on
Taiwan literature, did not get due attention. This article first traces how Yu became a
paragon of poetry in post-war Taiwan with the help of Tseng Jin-ko who had polemics
with Lu. It also explores how the alternate emergence of modern left/right-wing literary
models was related to the rise and decline of classical poetry and classical literature in
Taiwan. Finally, the article elucidates Yu’s perspectives on poetry and their significance
in the history of literature. Re-evaluating the importance of Yu on the poetry scene in
post-war Taiwan highlighted the stimulation and impact he had brought to Taiwan
literature, which was being reformed in that era. Moreover, it offers insight into the deep
structure and ecology of post-war Taiwan literature. Furthermore, as members of the
famous Chinese revolutionary literary group “Nan Sheh”, Tseng and Yu’s involvement
and engagement in the post-war Taiwan poetry arena can be viewed as a continuation of
the “Nan Sheh” spirit in Taiwan.
Keywords：Yu Yu-jen, Lu Xun, Tseng Jin-ko, Post-war Taiwan Literature, Nan Sheh
Following the publication of the monograph Studies of Sinkang Manuscripts by Li
in 2010, four other Sinkang manuscripts have recently been uncovered. Three of them
were originally collected by Joseph Steere in January 1874, lately found in an envelope
by Robert Michael Jaegar at the American Geographical Society Library, and the fourth
one was unearthed in Gongana, Tainan. With the same format and abbreviations as in the
monograph, these four manuscripts (dated 1723, 1771, 1776 and 1798, respectively) were
transcribed, with interlinear glosses and free translations in both Chinese and English,
offering new and precious information. Scanned copies of the manuscripts are also
attached herewith for reference.