The experience of Meiji Japan in establishing a nation state influenced its governance of the colonies acquired and also its transformation into a colonial empire. However, the Meiji Constitution did not contain any provisions concerning either Japanese dominion or possession of colonies. The drafters had never envisaged any possibility of Japan becoming a colonizer; and hence, left absolutely no groundwork concerning the legal status of colonies, or their governance.
After acquiring Taiwan, Korea, Karafuto (Sakhalin) and Kantoushu, Japan applied its Constitution to these colonies but the people of Japan and its colonies were not governed by the same laws. Due consideration was first given to the conditions of the local legal system before any policy, laws and regulations were to be implemented in the colonies. Thus, the Meiji imperial empire was in reality a union of different legal zones. Neither the people within the empire nor the laws applied to them were unified. Not only the people seldom intermingled, differential rights and obligations were often consciously constructed, with the home country given the most privileged position.
When complicated further the situation was that the colonies all had different legal and court systems. Such chaotic status naturally led to conflicts and disputes in the legal arena. To resolve the problem would require the institution of a unified legal system for the entire empire and the enactment of a common law for universal governance. In 1918, in an attempt to realize the ideal of a unified legal zone throughout the Japanese empire, a common law went into effect.
In this paper, I will elucidate the characteristics of the whole Japanese empire using the concept of nation-empire, which contains two dimensions, the nation state and the colonial empire. In particular, I will emphasize that the construction of a nation-empire involved gradual integration of these two dimensions. Nevertheless, integration was never easy due obviously to the abovementioned difference and discrimination.
Ultimately, the attempt of Meiji Japan in achieving integration and eliminating discrimination within the union of different legal zones turned out to be futile. In particular, for those who were coerced into becoming imperial subjects, their heavy and many obligations far exceeded the narrow and limited rights bestowed upon them.
Keywords：Nation-empire, Union of Different Legal Zones, Integration, Discrimination, Common Law
Issue of Admissions to Tainan Technical College and Ethnic Relations in Japanese Colonial Taiwan
During the Japanese colonial era, the way for Taiwanese to climb up the social ladder was through acquiring higher education. However, the colonial education system was founded on racial discrimination rather than equality. The colonial government restricted admissions of Taiwanese to higher education to the minimum in order to protect the educational privileges of the Japanese. Thus, Taiwanese students faced competitive entrance examinations to college for advancing their social status.
Through manipulating the admission mechanism, the Japanese deprived the Taiwanese of higher education opportunities. With reference to the unique campus culture among the minority Taiwanese students on the campus of Tainan Technical College, this study explored the historical development of college admissions of Taiwanese students, analyzed the college admission mechanism in Japanese colonial Taiwan, and examined the relationship between ethnic consciousness and human relationship.
This essay aims to explore the special system established by Japan in Taiwan and Korea between 1937 and 1945, with the aim of maintaining regular supply of grains. It also compares the provision, production and allocation of grains in the two colonies as well as results of the implementation of the grains regulation system within the Japanese colonial empire.
Before the Sino-Japanese War, Japan had no worry in the supply of grains because Korea and Taiwan, two crucial rice-producing countries, were part of the Japanese colonial empire. Originally, Korea played the chief supporting role; yet the drought of 1939 disrupted rice production in Korea. This caused upheaval to Japan’s wartime grains management policy. Consequently, adjustments were made including greater reliance on support from the South Pacific area, increase in production of grains other than rice, and the mobilization of the rural villages. Moreover, Japan frequently reorganized and established institutions related to grains supply and management. Towards the end of World War II, Japan introduction drastic reforms and integrated the agricultural societies of Japan, Taiwan and Korea to facilitate the mobilization of grains production and supply. In Taiwan, a parallel system was formed with social organizations of agricultural villages amalgamated under the Agricultural Society of Taiwan, which was responsible for grains production and procurement; while enterprises and companies formed the EIDAN (えいだん營團) of grains to execute the allocation. On the contrary, Korea had a unified system with production/procurement and allocation of grains all centralized in the hands of the EIDAN. The difference in operation was attributed to the different governing experience in the two colonies. In comparison, the operation in Taiwan could maintain more steady grain production than that in Korea and the procurement and allocation were also more well-regulated.
Keywords：Colony, War, Grains, Rice
International Food Regime and Food Dependency: The Development of Hog Industry in Postwar Taiwan
From the perspectives of historical sociology and political economy, this paper examines the development of hog industry in postwar Taiwan to illustrate the historical and structural factors that lead to food dependency of Taiwan. In the aftermath of World War II, the agricultural economy of Taiwan became incorporated into the international food regime dominated by the United States. Accordingly, its food production and consumption were regulated and influenced by the international food regime. To expand overseas market for its surplus agricultural commodities, the U.S. government not only implemented the export subsidy and concessional sale programs, but also promoted international reliance on U.S. feed grains exports by encouraging other countries to develop the husbandry industry. From the 1960s, the Sino-American Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction initiated the “Integrated Swine Program.” In the meantime, feed industry was aggressively developed by the government and international agribusiness companies began investing actively in Taiwan. Hog-raising in Taiwan was therefore transformed from a sideline business into the modern hog industry. However, hog industry developed on the basis of corn feed led to the immediate disappearance of the traditional sweet potato feeding and the dramatic decline of the sweet potato output on the one hand. On the other hand, it caused Taiwan to heavily depend on the U.S. feed grains.
Ever since the founding of the Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica in 2004, the Annual Bibliography of Taiwan History has been published with the aim to provide timely information on publications and an integrated bibliography of historical research of the preceding year, thus establishing a tradition of cumulative and yearly academic review on past studies in Taiwan history.
Focusing mainly on the “2007 Conference on Taiwan Historical Research”, this paper explores the trend in research on Taiwan history in 2007, beginning with a brief introduction on research efforts in four main categories: General Works, Economics, Politics and Social Culture, followed by an overall discussion on the results obtained, and finally ending with prospects for future historical studies.
While the past year has seen diverse development in research on Taiwan history, a basic understanding on the trend of thought and direction of research concerning contemporary historiography is required in order to have a comparative historical perspective for reflecting on current results and future direction for Taiwan historical research. The dual emphasis on academic independence and professionalism in historical recount and way of thinking is the key to prosperous development on Taiwan historiography.
Most of the research on the Lingbao ritual lineages of Zhengyi Daoism focused on the practices prevalent in or related to the Tainan area of Taiwan. There are very few studies on the old lineages dating back to the Qing dynasty–especially those of the Nanlu Fengshan Xian area. My field research has shown that most ritual lineages in the Nanlu area trace their teachings back to, or otherwise are connected to, a Weng-family lineage. (The Weng lineage headquarters, or tan, used to be in the Xiaogang region of Gaoxiong.) Moreover, these lineages have hand-copied manuscripts associated with the Weng ritual lineage dating back to the Yongzheng and Qianlong periods, as identified by colophons, seal impressions, or the tan name. Additional research finally turned up a descendent of the Weng family who provided me with a “Weng-family Genealogy” and 116 manuscripts dated between early Qing and 1945. Fifty of these are possessed by Weng family members, 39 are in other known hands, and 27 are from unidentified copyists. The earliest of these manuscripts was copied in 1724 and is signed by Weng Dingjiang; while the latest was copied by Wang Kuiben (1909-1956) in 1940. This corpus of valuable material documents the origin and spread of Taiwan’s Lingbao lineages of Zhengyi Daoism in the Nanlu area over the last 300 years and cries out for more research and contextualization in the context of Taiwan’s history. I hope, to the extent possible, to reconstruct the 300-year history of the Lingbao lineages of Zhengyi Daoism in Nanlu and to contribute new insights into the history of Daoism in Taiwan.
Keywords：Daoism, Fengshan Xian, The Daren Temple, Zhengyi Daoism, School of Zhenyi, Lingbao lineages
The Continuity or Interruption of Taiwan National Identity? A Book Review of The Resistance and Identities of Taiwanese, 1920-1950