According to economic theory, income level is the most important factor of households' savings. When exploring farm households' saving behavior in Taiwan during the Japanese colonial period, Chang and Yeh find out that income has a decisive effect on savings. In spite of the fact that the savings rate of farm households at that time was quite high, they discover that both the amount of saving and the savings rate of farm households decreased from 1918-1921 to 1931-1934. In order to completely understand the economic condition of farm households in the pre-war era, this article uses the available data of farm households during 1918-1937 and adopts statistical measures of variance of farms' income, the coefficient of variation and the Gini coefficient to analyze the changing trends of income level and inequality of income distribution. In addition, this article employes statistical methods of regression analysis and the Bartlett test to search for the determinants of farm households' income and the factors affecting income inequality. Four major conclusions are derived. (1) During the period of 1918-1921 to 1931-1934, the government's policy of technological innovation in agriculture reduced the disadvantage of economic depression on farm households' income. (2) Farm households' income inequality, measured by both the coefficient of variation and the Gini coefficient, decreased from 1918-1921 to 1931-1934. (3) The most important determinants of farm households' income level were the quantities of inputs, especially labor and capital. (4) Farms' organization, residence, and factors of production all had a statistically significant effect on households' income inequality.
Keywords：Variance of Farms' Income, Coefficient of Variation, Gini Coefficient, Regression Analysis, Bartlett Test
Shih-jung Hsu and Hsin-huang Michael Hsiao：
Landlord and Tenants' Relations in the Post-War Era: Reconsidering the Land to the Tiller Program
The discourse on the implementation of Taiwan's land reform traditionally puts effort on the inequality of landlord-tenant institution and the serious exploitation by landlords toward tenants. Class differentiation between a landlord and tenant is obvious, and rebellion from a tenant is also imminent. In order to prevent social unrest and resolve disputes between them, the KMT-state did not have any choice but to perform land reform policy in the 1940s and 1950s. This research would like to explore the relationship between landlords and tenants. Is their relation really inharmonious just as the state proclaims─landlords' exploitation? Do tenants execute protest activities against their landlords? If the answer is no, then how can we explain this kind of situation? These are the major research questions the paper would like to investigate.
The privately-owned land institution and the tenancy system have lasted for more than three hundred years in Taiwan. Even though tenants receive very unequal treatment due to high rental rates, uncertainty of tenure, etc., a tenant protest movement has seldom emerged in Taiwan's history. The reason is probably because of the inequality of the power relation between them since landlords can easily expel their tenants. However, based on the field study, this research finds that a paternalistic ideology has been formed in landlords' and tenants' minds. The landlord and tenant relation is recognized as being like a farther and son; therefore, with the deep belief in Chinese filial piety, it is very impossible to have protest activities. The tenants are in a situation of being powerless, because of the shaping of ideology. The relation between them is really harmonious, and it can explain why there were around 29,000 cases, whereby the tenants wanted to return their received land to their landlords after the first stage of land reform policy between 1949 and 1951.
It is because tenants did not release themselves from this ideology that on the other hand, landlords also abided by the subsistence ethic to support their tenants. This does not mean there is no exploitative relation. Tenants and their families did survive on the borderline of hunger. Nevertheless, while the implementation of land reform policies brought great benefit toward the tenants, both the eminent domain of common ownership-leased farmland and the great expansion of the landlord's definition caused serious hardship to small landholders.
Keywords：Land Reform, Tenancy Relations, Three Dimensions of Power, the Land to the Tiller Program, Paternalistic Ideology
Planning Science and Technology in Taiwan: Wu Ta-you and the Commission for Science Development
The appearance of a science policy in Taiwan started in 1967, when the Commission for Science Development (CSD) was organized under the National Security Council. Founded by President Chiang Kai-shek, the principles and organization of the CSD differed from previous efforts in promoting science by academics such as Hu Shih and Wang Shih-chieh. Wu Ta-you, who was invited by the President to direct the CSD, drafted a long-term plan for scientific development from the viewpoint of "national need" instead of "academic independence". Based upon the American model, his emphasis on basic research caused arguments about the priority of applied science. Was the top-down policy of CSD suitable for Taiwan's society? This paper explores the relationship between basic science and so-called national construction, and its effect on controversies about national defense and industrial research.
Keywords：Wu Ta-you, Li Kuo-ting, Chiang Kai-shek, Chiang Ching-kuo, Commission for Science Development (CSD), National Science Council (NSC)
Arthur P. Wolf：
Women and Tea in the Taipei Basin: An Essay in Honor of Wang Shih-Ch’ing
The argument of this paper is intended to draw attention to Wang Shih-ch'ing's many contributions to Taiwanese economic history and particularly to his study of river transportation in the Taipei Basin. Household registers compiled during the Japanese occupation indicate that women living in Ta-tao-ch'eng in the center of the Basin were far less likely to marry than women living in Hai-shan on the edge of the basin, and that women living in Hai-shan were less likely to marry than women living in rural areas outside of the basin. The reason appears to be that the tea industry centered in Ta-tao-ch'eng gave women an alternative to marriage.
Keywords：Taipei Basin, Ta-tao-ch'eng, Hai-shan, women, marriage, tea industry
Book Review: Chih-ming Ka, The Contradictory Relationship Between Rice and Sugar: Development and Dependency in Colonial Taiwan, 1895-1945