During the Japanese colonial period, Taiwanese people had realized that they were left with very limited opportunities and social resources at home for career development. As a result, many of them had sought new opportunities abroad within the “Great Empire” of Japan, and most landed in the State of Manchuria or the Manazhouguo(滿洲國) –a state in northeastern China nominally declared in dependent by Japan in 1932. Unlike in other parts of China, Taiwanese residents in Manchuria did not have to conceal their true identities, and Jian Guo(建國) University was the only institution offering admissions to the Taiwanese students for higher education. Therefore, migrants to Manchuria had increased since the 1930’s. During the 50years of Japanese colonial rule, there were approximately 5000people from Taiwan settled in Manchuria, either for a short-term employment or long-term residence. Besides those who worked as lower-middle administrative bureaucrats, physicians were among the most noteworthy professions taken up by the Taiwanese in Manchuria.
The topnotch Manzho(滿州)Medical University in Manchuria, together with institutions such as the Xingjin(新京) Medical University, Harbin(哈爾濱) Medical University, and the Kaituo(開拓) Hospital, had attracted a remarkable number of Taiwanese to receive medical training there. Many of these Taiwanese even stayed on to practice medicine after graduation. In addition, there were a significant number of qualified physicians coming from Taiwan, Japan and Korea, providing medical services of their profession in this region. These physicians lectured in medical universities, practiced medicine in either public or private hospitals, or worked in the government public health departments, all showing remarkable performance and achievement. Two Taiwanese clinical professionals Xie Qiu-tao(謝秋濤) and Wang Luo(王洛) were even awarded the Annual Mukden(盛京) Prize of Science.
Another distinct medical professional was the Taiwanese physician Huang Zizheng(黃子正), who had served as the personal doctor of Manzhouguo’s Emperor, PuYi, Huang was also one of the nine entourage who fled with Pu Yi. Together, they were captured by the Soviet Russians and were released after being imprisoned for 12 years.
This paper focuses on the life and work of Taiwanese physicians in Manchuria. The fact that they had family connections in the Northeast was a great incentive for these physicians to head there. The relationships between these physicians and their family background are also discussed.
Keywords：Taiwanese physician, Manchuria, Manzhou Medical University
Modern Forestry, Capitalism and the Governance of Frontier: Some Reconsideration of the Investigation and Arrangement of Rinya in Taiwan during the Japanese Colonial Period
This paper takes the investigation and arrangement of rinya (forests and wild land) as its focus, accompanied with the triangulation of historical materials to discuss if the interpretations of such investigation and arrangement of rinya in Taiwan’s shihonshugika (the transition to capitalism) by researchers from Tadao Yanaihara downward are appropriate. In addition, this paper also introduces the colonial administration’s view toward forests, the unintended consequences generated after the connection of different institutions, and the heterogeneities of forest resources to explain in a holistic scale how the rinya was incorporated in to colonial control, allocated to different stakeholders, and then reached “shihonshugika”.
At the beginning of Japanese colonial rule in Taiwan, the colonial administration divided the rinya into forest lands and forest products through institutions so as to identify the contents of stakeholders’ rights. While confronting the existing customary practices of fore style in Taiwan’s society, there were problems of articulating the customary practices and new regulations that frequently occurred. The primary resolution did not come out until the establishment of engokanke-rinya( occupation relationships) after the investigation of rinya. As a comparison, although the capitalists that resided in the government-owned rinya under the consideration of the domestication of the indigenous people and wastelands development deployed takushokukeiei(management by colonizing and reclaiming ) mainly to the forest lands, the revenue that eminated from the forest products was the important incentive of accelerating the alliance of capitalists and government.
After undertaking the arrangement of government-owned rinya in the 1920s, the colonial administration divided the government-owned rinya into preserved and non-preserved areas, while at the same time sorting out the forest people and their engokanke-rinya. Through property devolving, knowledge inculcation and law enforcement, the colonial administration tried to convert these people who resided around the government-owned rinya into forest managers who could live on their own and be no harm to forest protection. Benefits to forest products and lumber in dustries came about due to World War I. However, those capitalists located in the non-preserved rinya and who were unable to arrange in time took liberty of the war and the convenience of colonizing and reclaiming the forest lands to undertake operations that resulted in serious deforestation, which did not comply with the conservation ideas prescribed in forest law. Thus, the colonial administration not only concentrated on the authority of the national forests, but also integrated the strengths of capitalists to manage the national forests efficiently.
This government-led model was unexpectedly squeezed between Japan and an international situation turned the profits of rinya into a concern over waste. Consequently, a knowledge system package originating from the European continent’s scientific forestry was appropriated. The colonial administration tried to reform the existing systems of forest management and solve the practical problems in the 1930s. As to the research history of rinya which has focused on the primary and mid-term of Japanese colonial rule, this paper adjusts the errors implicated in evolutionist explanations and the unsuitability of the application of theory into history on some level, while at the same time providing possible spaces for dialogue between the research traditions of Taiwan’s shihonshugika and the environmental history of South Asial.
Keywords：rinya, arrangement of forest and wild land, modern forestry, shihonshugika, environmental history
Tracing the Track in History: Continuance and Transition of Taiwanese Old and New Literature (1895-1924)
Current discussions of the history of Taiwanese literature of often take the 1920s as the dawn of Taiwanese New Literature when scholars like Chen Xin(陳炘), Chen Duan-ming(陳端明), and Huang Chao-qin(黃朝琴) advocated the use of vernacular Chinese (白話文). Focus of the discussion has been on the debate between the New and Old Literature. Such emphasis seems to imply that the rise of the Taiwanese New Literature is viewed as an enemy of the Old Literature. Does such ‘enmity’ exist between the two ? Or is such ”broken relationship” is the only perspective when viewing the development of the two literatures?
From a different viewpoint, this paper explores the desire and urge for new learning and new literature among the Taiwanese under the spread of Western influence from 1895-1924, which fostered the rise of the New Literature. Furthermore, during the transition from the ‘old’ to ‘New’, traditional scholars with great influence in the literary arena also issued statements advocating for literature reform. This gave support and impetus to the new changes, thus catalyzing the development of the New Literature. Hence, rather than broken, the relationship between the New and Old Literature is a continued one.
While the ground seemed to be ready for literary reform and the rise of the New literature, its growth was affected by the Japanese emphasis of Han Poetry(漢詩) as the social model of the Old Literature. Cultural, political and social constraints further intensified the tension between the Old and New Literature. As a result, the dawn and rise of the New Literature in Taiwan came much later its counterpart in Japan and China.
Keywords：Taiwan new literature, Traditional literature, Transition period, Modernity, Opposition position based on historical view
Anti-parasite vs Anti-mosquito: Anti-malaria Program in Colonial Taiwan
The anti-malaria program in colonial Taiwan has always been regarded as a scientific and modern disease control policy, or been described as a success in implementing the “anti-parasite measure”. This paper argues that the anti-malaria policy under Japanese rule was not wholly based on professional knowledge, and the policymaking process, instead of being consistent or static, involved dynamic revisions and frequent compromises with reality.
The Geography Information System(GIS) is employed in this study as a tool for handling spatial data, analysis and map-making. Since the “anti-parasite measure” had been implemented at selected points initially, GIS proves to be very efficient in mapping the locations of these points. The distribution analysis shows that these points were chosen not according to scientific epidemiological investigation. Rather they were selected to protect the Japanese and their interests. This also provides evidence that the spread of malaria is closely related to regional environmental development.
Since 1919, the focus of the anti-malaria program had shifted from “anti-parasite” to “anti-mosquito”. This drastic change in policy was neither an accident nor a coincidence. The remarkable worldwide success of the anti-mosquito strategy in the 1910s had aroused great hope in this prevention approach. At the same time, Taiwan suffered from another outbreak of malaria after the anti-parasite measure had been practiced for some years. These two reasons contributed to the change in the disease control strategy.
However, the anti-mosquito approach in Taiwan proved to be fruitless for several reason. First, unlike other countries, this measure was carried out in colonial Taiwan by district officials who only received short-term expertise training. As a result, wrong decisions were inevitable. Moreover, residents were often forced to comply with the government measures without any compensation. Their reluctance worsened the situation and the anti-mosquito program was doomed to failure. In the late 1920s, with the optimism of the anti-mosquito measure gradually fading, and the lukewarm effort of the government is its implementation, the anti-parasite measure once again became the main strategy of the anti-malaria program under Japanese rule.
Prior researches on the anti-malaria program in colonial Taiwan have much simplified the scene. In fact, there was an inconsistency between principle and practice. It is this inconsistency that reflects the real essence of the snit-malaria program in colonial medicine: Using the simplest method to achieve the maximum effects.
Through the above=mentioned observations, this paper aims to clarify fallacies in previous studies, and tries to point out the unique features of the anti-malaria program in colonial Taiwan.
Keywords：Malaria, GIS, Colonial Medicine, Scientific Colonialism, Anti-malaria Program
Land Administration and Land Documents: An Introduction to the Transcribed Land Documents in the Taiwan Sōtokufu Archives
In the early 20th century, the Japanese colonial government carried out a comprehensive land survey in Taiwan for nearly 30 years and established a detailed and thorough land registry. Making use of these land documents produced in previous times, the Taiwan Sotokufu sought to clarify complicated land relations, and build upon them clear land rights for each plot of land. These land documents acquired during the land investigation process were partly preserved in the Taiwan Sotokufu Archives, and totaled around 15,000 pieces. They amounted to nearly 75 percent of the published land documents at present.
In the process of transcribing the land documents, the Taiwan Sotokufu examined carefully the parties involved, the locations of the pieces of land and the authenticity of the documents. Moreover, they adopted the newly established land registry when transcribing the land documents with modern maps, the household census registry, and the land registry, thus making possible the mapping of locations of land involved and the reconstruction of local development history.
Keywords：land documents, Taiwan Sotokufu Archives, land tax reform, land survey, land registry