This article examines U.S. Consul Charles Le Gendre’s mappings of “the Chinese division of the island” of Formosa as documented in the geographical, geological, and textual representations he produced in the early 1870s. In late 1869, Charles Le Gendre conducted an investigative journey from the northern port city of Tamsui down along the western coast of Taiwan to the prefectural capital of Taiwanfu. Details of that expedition were recorded in Le Gendre’s unpublished, illustrated travel report, Notes of Travel in Formosa, and sketched on a color-coded map, “Formosa Island and the Pescadores,” which was revised by U.S. Coast Survey cartographers and published by the U.S. Government Printing Office in 1871. The texts, maps and geological sections produced by Le Gendre, as well as the photographs commissioned to illustrate his manuscript, are the primary materials employed for this historical research.
In general, I analyze the work processes undertaken by Le Gendre as he mapped the topography and terrain of the western plains and bordering foothills, and the geographical, geological, cartographic and textual products of his inves- tigative work. Le Gendre’s cartographic discourse, his experiential encounters with the landscape, and his attempts to systematize and disseminate the knowledge produced on this 1869 trek are all subjects addressed in this article. Major sections are devoted to analyses of Le Gendre’s unique mappings of western Formosan towns and villages, Qing administrative geography, local society and culture, agricultural resources, and geological formations. In addition, a counter-mapping of Le Gendre’s experience on the road is attempted by focusing on the spots where Le Gendre and his party of chair-bearing coolies, European guides (John Dodd and William Pickering), and photographic artist halted. Brief attention is also given to Le Gendre’s comparative historical geogra- phy in both textual and cartographic representations. Finally, I have shown how Le Gendre’s mappings of western Formosa influenced official Euro-American cartographic production for several decades after the publication of his textual and cartographic mappings of Taiwan in the early 1870s.
Cinchona bark was brought into Europe as a treatment for ague in the early 17th century. In the 19th century, cinchona was introduced to the laboratory and to the planta-tion. Scientists of the West extracted successfully quinine from the bark, examining how alkaloids work in the treatment of disease, and exploring artificial synthesis of quinine. On the other hand, Cinchona plantation in British and Dutch colonies raced to initiate and cultivate the best or most productive species of Cinchona. Meanwhile, Cinchona bark (幾那, 機那, 規那or キナ皮 in Japanese) and quinine (貴尼涅, 幾尼涅, 規尼涅or キニーネ）were imported into Japan, and soon enjoyed equal popularity with Ginseng. By the end of the 19th century, with the discovery of the infection mechanism of malaria, the use of quinine has been recognized not only as a therapeutic means, but also an efficient tool for prevention.
After Taiwan became the first tropical colony under the Japanese Empire, ef-forts had been made by the colonial government to initiate Cinchona cultivation. Since the 1920s, pharmaceutical industries that possessed the technique of quinine extraction had also tried to seek sites for setting up cinchona plantation in Taiwan. Furthermore, the experimental forests of imperial universities established the branch of study called “Kina-ology” in the 1930s. However, the causal relation between Cinchona cultivation, quinine production and anti-malaria policy in colonial Taiwan is more complicated than previously thought, and should be examined in an international context. This paper traces the history of Cinchona cultivation in Meiji Japan and colonial Taiwan, revealing that Cinchona trees were initially viewed as tropical plants, then medicinal plants since 1912, and finally plants of national policy after 1932. It also discusses the role played by the government, pharmaceutical industries and imperial universities in each stage. Moreover, the dynamic relationship between Cinchona cultivation, quinine production and anti-malaria policy is reexamined in this paper.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the transition of local elites under change of regime in Taiwan. After World War II, the Nationalist Government took over Taiwan from the Japanese colonizers and then established the Taiwan Provincial Administrative Executive Office. The February 28 Incident of 1947 was triggered by the arrest of an illegal cigarette seller. Many Taiwan elites were injured, missing or even killed. According to previous researches, the February 28 Incident had a significant impact on the transition of political elites of Taiwan.
With the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, the U.S. 7th Fleet was sent to protect Taiwan and the Kuomintang regime was recognized as the only lawful representative of China. Thus, the Kuomintang regime concentrated on tightening the control of Taiwan society. One of its policies was to reorganize the Farmers’ Associations because the agricultural sector played an important role in promoting Taiwan’s economic development in the 1950s.
Following the reorganization of the Farmers’ Associations, new leaders were appointed, among which were many local elites well connected with the Kuomintang regime. With the collaboration of the local elites, the Kuomintang regime successfully strengthened its grip of Taiwan society.
Keywords：Transition of Elites, February 28 Incident, Farmers’ Associations
The apotheosis of neglected and malevolent ghosts is becoming an increasingly common phenomenon in the folk religion of the Tainan area, especially along the coast. Numerous places of worship known as “Marshal Temple” and “General Temple” can be found there. In addition to the worship of various marshals and generals of unknown provenance, the main object of veneration is a deity named after some natural phenomena, such as mountains, sea, water, or wind. Deities related to mountains include Marshal Zhenshan and City God Zhenshan; those related to the sea include Marshal Zhenhai, General Zhenhai, Marshal Youhai, and City God Zhenhai; those connected with water include General Youshui and General Qingshui; and those connected with wind include Marshal Tengfeng.
Deities now known as Yu-ying-kung (有應公), the lonely ghosts that ask and you shall receive), Lord Wanshan, and Lord Dazhong used to be neglected ghosts but were transformed into deities by folk religion practitioners living along the Tainan coast. These deities were promoted from malicious ghosts of relatively low status; thus, they do not occupy very high positions in the local folk religion pantheon, and are given titles such as “marshal” or “general” rather than “his royal highness.” After being upgraded to the status of deity, Lord Dazhong began to be called Marshal Zhenhai, Marshal Tengfeng, or Marshal Zhenshan. Once a malicious ghost is promoted to the status of marshal or general, he gains the ability to control a particular natural phenomenon. For example, Marshal Tengfeng has the ability to pacify the wind and waves, and Marshal (General) Zhenhai has the ability to calm the ocean.
The appearance of an kimsin (金身, the statue of deity) is the most important indication of the apotheosis of a neglected ghost. Following apotheosis, a deity may undergo a process of multiplication whereby his duplicates take up residence in a number of branch temples. This process is related to the emigration of the deity’s followers, and at a set time every year the duplicates return to the mother temple to call on the ancestor deity and make offerings. Once the apotheosis is complete, the deity’s former shrine loses its function as a place for commemorating abandoned ghosts and is transformed into a local zhuang miao（庄廟）, a jiaotou miao（角頭廟）, or even a mother temple in its own right.
Keywords：Neglected Soul, Lord Dazhong, Marshal Zhenhai, Marshal Tengfeng
Between “Oriental History” and “National History”: Post-war Research on Taiwan History in Korean Historiography
In both Taiwan and Korea, the development of historiography is closely related with national identity. Such relation is particularly obvious in the delineation between research of domestic and foreign histories. This study organizes and summarizes the topics relating to Taiwan in post-war Korean historiography, and reviews them in the context of post-war Korean historiographic development. This aims to highlight the fact despite being established during the era of self-identification, the historiography of Taiwan took on a different appearance as a foreign history when it was included in the historiography of Korean, which had similar political statuses and historical contexts. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the academic process by which the national history of Korea was constructed. The analysis even includes how Taiwan history as a foreign history was incorporated into the national history of Korea, which deviated from the conventional framework of what national history should embrace. With reference to such consideration, this study explores the social meaning and possible development strategies of Taiwan as a research topic in other countries or even in the international arena.
Keywords：The Society of Asian Historical Studies, MIN Tuki, Northeast Project, Northeast Asian History Foundation
Introduction to Materials Related to Taiwan and Life of G. H. Kerr in Papers of Okinawa Prefectural Archives
George H. Kerr (1911-1992), a former U.S. Vice-Consul in Taiwan and a witness to the 228 Incident in 1947, advocated U.S. or U.N. trusteeship for Taiwan and had important influence on the Taiwan Independence Movement. Kerr left behind many significant books and records about the history of Taiwan and Okinawa that are collected at the Hoover Institution of Stanford University (U.S.), the Taipei 228 Memorial Museum (Taiwan), and the University of the Ryukyus and the Okinawa Prefectural Archives (Japan). These materials can provide important information regarding the post-war history of Taiwan. This paper introduces some little-known materials related to Taiwan that are contained in the G. H. Kerr papers of the Okinawa Prefectural Archives (OPA). In addition, this article discusses Kerr’s relationship with Taiwan, particularly in terms of what the records in the OPA can tell us about Kerr’s influence on Taiwan's history and about how Kerr’s advocacy for Taiwan affected his own life and career.
Keywords：George H. Kerr, John King Fairbank, Formosa Betrayed, 228 Incident, Trusteeship for Taiwan, UNRRA, FAPA, Okinawan History, McCarthyism, USCAR, Taiwan Independence Movement
Review of A History of Japan-Taiwan Relations, 1945-2008 by Shin Kawashima, et al